The law recognises five types of hate crime on the basis of:
- Sexual orientation
- Transgender identity
Any crime can be prosecuted as a hate crime if the offender has either:
- demonstrated hostility based on race, religion, disability, sexual orientation or transgender identity
- been motivated by hostility based on race, religion, disability, sexual orientation or transgender identity
Someone can be a victim of more than one type of hate crime.
Our own performance data and bespoke sampling exercises help us to understand how we are responding to the challenges of hate crime prosecution. In addition, we make use of external research and reports from academics, parliament, the government and community stakeholder organisations to improve our understanding and awareness of hate crime, how it operates and its impact. The sections below provide a outline of some of the relevant work that we have taken account of in recent years.
Read how the CPS goes about prosecuting the different strands of Hate Crime in our Prosecution Guidance section
Crimes Against Older People (CAOP)
Our approach to dealing with CAOP has much in common with the monitored strands of hate crime. There can also be links from a crime against an older person to one or more of these strands. For these reasons, we include the CAOP policy and guidance here.