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CPS data summary Quarter 2 2020-2021

|Publication, Sexual offences , Hate crime , Domestic abuse

Introduction

This Q2 data release covers the 3-month period 1 July to 30 September 2020, with the previous three quarters provided to illustrate trends.

COVID-19 continued to impact on the Criminal Justice System in Q2 20/21. The magistrates’ court and Crown Court increased their number of hearings and the range of types of cases heard. The number of half day sessions covered by the CPS increased from 31,394 in Q1 20/21 to 68,632 in Q2 20/21, though this is still 12% lower than 77,855 in Q4 19/20.

As in Q1 20/21, the focus of this summary is the impact of COVID-19 in Q2 20/21. Key points to note:

  • Social distancing continued to impact the progression of cases through the courts as the number of people allowed in the courtroom was restricted. While the number of completed prosecutions in Q2 20/21 is higher than Q1 20/21 it is still 7% lower than Q4 19/20. Recovery has been quicker in the magistrates’ court as fewer people are needed at each hearing which allows more hearings to take place and cases completed. This means that the number of finalised prosecutions has more than doubled between Q1 and Q2 20/21. While not at the same level, there was also a 47% increase in the Crown Court, where more people are required in the courtroom (e.g. a jury is required for a Crown Court trial), over the same time period.
  • The disparity between receipts and finalisations continued which led to an increased live caseload from just over 170,853 at the end of Q1 20/21 to 182,692 at the end of Q2 20/21. The caseload peaked at almost 184,565 at the end of August 2020 after which the caseload decreased slightly. Though it has started to gradually reduce, the live caseload is still 79,139 or 76% higher than February 2020.
  • The fall in caseload is only in the magistrates’ court where the live caseload dropped from 130,551 in August to almost 124,824 in September. The caseload remains 65,558, or 111%, higher than pre-lockdown.
  • The live caseload continues to increase in the Crown Court with 57,868 cases at the end of Q2 20/21. This is an increase of 13,551 cases or 30.6% since February 2020.
  • A proportion, estimated at 12,000 in September 2020, of cases recorded as in the magistrates’ courts will ultimately be heard in the Crown Court, so will in due course be added into the caseload totals in the Crown Court.
  • A comparison of the RYTD Q2 19/20 and RYTD Q2 20/21 data shows that the number of rape suspects submitted by the police to the CPS for a charging decision has increased resulting in more suspects entering the Criminal Justice System. During the same period the number of rape suspects charged increased by 7.5%. This has been caused by both more cases entering the system and the CPS charging a higher proportion. In the future this will lead to more defendants appearing in court and facing prosecution but there will be a delay before the volumes and outcomes will be realised in the data. Rape prosecutions take longer than any other case type to progress through the Criminal Justice System because they are complex cases that require more consultations and longer investigations. In rolling year to date Q2 20/21 there were an average of 2.58 consultations per rape defendant compared to 1.78 overall.

Overall pre-charge and prosecutions

ReceiptsAfter the increase from Q4 19/20 to Q1 20/21 the volume of pre-charge receipts dropped slightly, -4.5%, from 64,007 in Q1 20/21 to 61,122 in Q2 20/21.
TimelinessThe average time for the police and CPS to charge rose slightly from 29.0 days in Q1 20/21 to 30.2 days in Q2 20/21, though this is still lower than Q3 and Q4 19/20, 32.6 days and 32.0 days respectively.
Charging

The proportion of suspects charged (out of all legal decisions) has increased from 73.1% in Q1 20/21 to 75.2% in Q2 20/21. The Q2 20/21 rate has returned to a similar level as pre-lockdown.

The volume of defendants charged has remained relatively stable over the last four quarters.

Completed prosecutionsAfter the significant decrease in Q1 20/21 due to lockdown the volumes have returned closer to pre-COVID levels in Q2 20/21. In Q1 20/21, 41,508 prosecutions were completed which increased to 100,377 in Q2 20/21. For comparison, in the quarter before lockdown (Q4 19/20), 107,497 prosecutions were completed.
Convictions

The conviction rate has increased from 77.9% in Q1 20/21 to 87.4% in Q2 20/21 though this has been affected by lockdown and social distancing and caution should be taken when comparing.

Hate Crime

ReceiptsThe volume of police receipts increased from 9,432 in Q2 RYTD 2019/20 to 10,408 in Q2 RYTD 2020/21 - a 10.4% increase.
Completed prosecutions

Owing to the impact of the pandemic, completed prosecutions fell from 12,085 in Q2 19/20 RYTD to 9,002 in Q2 20/21 RYTD - a 25.5% decrease.

There has, however, been a significant increase in completed prosecutions over the past quarter, from 1,171 in Q1 to 2,755 in Q2 20/21 - a 135.3% increase.

UpliftsThe proportion of convictions with an announced and recorded sentence uplift increased over the period from 75.7% in Q2 19/20 RYTD to 78.8% in Q2 20/21 RYTD.
Conviction rateThe conviction rate increased from 85.0% in Q2 19/20 RYTD to 86.2% in Q2 20/21 RYTD.

Domestic Abuse

Receipts

The volume of pre-charge receipts from the police fell to 81,813 in Q2 20/21 RYTD, from 86,665 in Q2 2019/20 RYTD – a decrease of 5.6%.

There was a fall in volume over the last quarter to 20,888 in Q2 20/21 from 21,789 in the previous quarter – a 4.1% decrease.

Timeliness

The average time to charge for the police and CPS rose to 16.3 days in Q2 20/21 RYTD, from 12.1 days in Q2 19/20 RYTD.

Charging

Of all legal pre-charge decisions, the volume charged fell to 53,372 in Q2 20/21 RYTD, from 59,685 in Q2 19/20 RYTD - a fall of 10.6%.

Over the past quarter, the volume charged stayed relatively steady at 13,211 in Q2 20/21 compared with 13,287 in the previous quarter.

The proportion charged (out of all legal decisions) fell to 71.5% in Q2 20/21 RYTD, from 73.0% in Q2 19/20 RYTD.

Completed prosecutions

Owing to the impact of the pandemic, the volume of completed prosecutions fell to 52,310 in Q2 2020/21 RYTD from 69,756 in Q2 2019/20 RYTD - a fall of 33.5%.

However, the volume prosecuted rose to 15,331 in Q2 20/21 from 8,744 in the previous quarter - an increase of 75.3% and the highest volume reached since Q2 2019/20.

Rape

Receipts

The volume of pre-charge receipts from the police rose to 3,269 in Q2 20/21 RYTD, from 2,890 in Q2 19/20 RYTD - an increase of 13.1%.

The volume of pre-charge receipts from the police has increased over the past four quarters, reaching 920 in Q2 20/21 compared with 856 in the previous quarter - an increase of 7.5%.

On average receipts will become completed pre-charge decisions in approximately 140 days. This creates a delay in the effect any changes in receipts to the volume of completed pre-charge decisions and the related outcome measures.

Timeliness

The average time for the police and CPS to charge rose to 141.6 days in Q2 20/21 RYTD from 132.4 days in Q2 19/20 RYTD.

Charging

The proportion of suspects charged (out of all legal decisions) has increased to 60.7% Q2 20/21 RYTD compared with 52.0% in Q2 19/20 RYTD.

There has been an increase in the volume of suspects charged, from 1,783 in Q2 19/20 RYTD to 1,916 in Q2 20/21 RYTD - a rise of 7.5%.

Over the past quarter, there was a fall in volume of suspects charged, from 487 in the previous quarter to 448 in Q2 20/21 due to a decrease in legal decisions. The proportion of suspects charged (out of legal decisions) has increased from 58.3% in Q1 20/21 to 65.3% in Q2 20/21.

Admin finalised

Out of all pre-charge decisions, the proportion of ‘admin finalised’ fell to 24.3% in Q2 20/21 RYTD, from 29.6% in Q2 2019/20 RYTD.

Prosecutions

Owing to the impact of the pandemic, the volume of completed prosecutions fell from 2,343 in Q2 2019/20 RYTD to 1,528 in Q2 2020/21 RYTD - a 34.8% decrease.

The volume prosecuted rose to 306 in Q2 2020/21, from 218 in the previous quarter.

Impact of COVID-19

Overall the caseload is reducing

The magistrates’ court live caseload fell in September while the Crown Court continues to increase.

The number of cases finalised and leaving the Criminal Justice System is higher than the number received for the first time since February. This is caused by an increase in finalisations compared to the same period last year from 38,656 in September 2019 to 39,039 in September 2020.

 

 

 

Magistrates’ Court Caseload is Reducing

The magistrates’ court live caseload reached a peak of 130,551 case in August before reducing to 124,824 in September.

This is still significantly higher than February. September is 65,588 cases or 111% higher than February.

In September the number of cases finalised exceeded the number of cases received allowing the number of live cases to fall.

Part of the magistrates’ court fall in the live caseload is due to cases being sent to the Crown Court. These have not left the Criminal Justice System but have moved to the Crown Court live caseload.

 

Crown Court Caseload is Increasing

The Crown Court live caseload continues to increase. The increase in the Crown Court corresponds with the recovery in the magistrates’ court from May. As the magistrates’ court finalised more cases this allowed the cases to flow in to the Crown Court.

The Crown Court live caseload was increasing before COVID-19 but since May the magistrates’ court recovered there has been a significant increase.

In September there were 57,868 cases in the Crown Court. This is an increase of 12,005 cases or 26% since May.

The number of cases received has been higher than finalisations since June which has caused the number of live cases to increase.


About CPS data

The CPS uses management information to understand and address performance issues. This data is regularly shared with partners in the Criminal Justice System to improve understanding of efficiency and effectiveness, and where necessary, support the development of system-wide reforms.

Previously, the CPS has published annual data on Violence against Women and Girls (VAWG) offences and hate crime. In order to enhance accountability and transparency in regards to CPS performance, the CPS will now publish quarterly data on a wider range of offence types.

The CPS does not publish official statistics. The official statistics relating to crime and policing are maintained by the Home Office and Office for National Statistics. Official statistics relating to sentencing, criminal court proceedings, offenders brought to justice, the courts and the judiciary are maintained by the Ministry of Justice. CPS management information is derived from the CPS case management system, and as with any large scale recording system, data is subject to possible errors in entry and processing. The figures are provisional and subject to change as more information is recorded by the CPS.

Note in particular that the CPS maintains a central record of prosecution outcomes with reference to a number of case monitoring flags, including modern slavery and human trafficking, hate crime, domestic abuse, and rape. CPS statistics are dependent upon lawyers and administrative staff identifying and correctly flagging cases on the case management system. CPS data is accurate only to the extent that flags have been correctly applied. Note also that:

  • A flag is applied at the onset of any case referred by the police to the CPS, and remains in place even if the charge is not proceeded with, is amended, or dropped.
  • A flag may be applied at a later point which differs from that originally identified by the police.
  • Although charges specifically related to a flag may be considered at the time of the pre-charge decision, the defendant may in fact be charged with another offence. Similarly, there may be cases where a person is convicted of a lesser offence than that with which they were proceeded against.

Understanding CPS Data Definitions and Caveats

In these statistics, a defendant represents one person in a single set of proceedings, which may involve one or more charges. A set of proceedings usually relates to an incident or series of related incidents that are the subject of a police file. If a set of proceedings relates to more than one person then each is counted as a defendant. Sometimes one person is involved in several sets of proceedings during the same year: if so, he or she is counted as a defendant on each occasion.

The quarterly casework statistics in these reports, comprise defendants dealt with by the 14 CPS Areas, the specialised casework handled by the Central Casework Divisions which include, those proceedings previously conducted by the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), the Department for Work and Pensions (DWP), the Department of Health (DoH) and the former Revenue and Customs Prosecution Office.

The data that forms the basis of this data release is derived from the CPS Case Management System (CMS) and its associated Management Information System (MIS). The data is held within a database within the MIS, based on defendants. The tables include total data on all defendants irrespective of sex or gender. Data has been broken down by overall volumes and proportions.

Pre-charge decision data

Pre-charge receipts:

The total number of suspects referred by the police to the CPS for a charging decision.

The number of pre-charge receipts, for different crime types, referred by the police relies on (a) the police identifying and flagging the cases, by suspect, prior to being referred to CPS and (b) CPS administrators identifying and flagging those cases on the CPS Casework Management System, when they are first registered.

Pre-charge decisions:

Of all the suspects referred by the police, pre-charge decisions are those where CPS has completed making a decision on whether to charge, take no further action, recommend an out of court decision, administratively finalise or ‘other’. The volume of pre-charge decisions, for each different crime type, completed by the CPS will be a total of those referred by the police (flagged by the police and CPS at registration) together with any flagged by CPS prosecutors and administrators at a later date, but before the final pre-charge decision is completed. The total pre-charge decision data is based on the date the charging advice was completed and provided to the police. Therefore, data in this data release may include pre-charge decisions on cases referred by the police to the CPS in previous quarters or years.

Pre-charge legal decisions include: charge, take no further action or recommend an out of court decision.

Charged:

Charging decisions are where CPS is satisfied that the legal test for prosecution, set out in the Code for Crown Prosecutors is met: there is enough evidence to provide a ‘realistic prospect of conviction’ against each defendant and the prosecution is in the public interest.

No Further Action:

NFA decisions are where CPS has decided that no further action should be taken; the case cannot proceed to charge as it does not meet the Code for Crown Prosecutor test, for either evidential or public interest reasons.

Out of court disposals:

A simple caution, conditional caution, reprimand, final warning or TIC (taken into consideration) issued by the CPS at pre-charge stage.

Pre-charge non-legal decisions include: administratively finalised and ‘other’.

Administratively finalised:

Administratively finalised decisions are not legal decisions and may not be the end of the case.

The reasons for recording an administrative finalisation include:

  • The CPS may ask the police to provide further information where there is insufficient evidence to make a charging decision, or the police are requesting early investigative advice. If the police do not respond within three months, following reminders, the case is closed on CMS. If the police provide additional evidence, the case is reopened in CMS and, if possible, a charging decision is made.
  • Cases where the CPS have advised the police to charge but the suspect has not been charged, due to the suspect not answering police bail or being located, will also be administratively finalised. If the suspect is subsequently located and charged the case is reopened in CMS.
  • Cases where a file submission has been rejected at triage because items are missing, and the police have been asked to supply the additional material and have not responded to reminders.
  • Where the case has been returned to the police, with or without a lawyer’s advice and/or actions, and the police decide to take no further action on the allegation.
  • The suspect has died.

Other:

The result of the charging decision is not known or has not been given for that suspect.

Prosecution Outcomes Data

CPS outcomes are recorded on a defendant basis. In some cases, a number of defendants may be prosecuted together. All defendants may be convicted; all may be acquitted; or some may be convicted and others acquitted.

Conviction Outcomes:

Guilty pleas:

The defendant pleads guilty. The data includes defendants who pleaded guilty to some charges, and were either convicted or dismissed after trial of other charges.

Convictions after trial:

The defendant pleads not guilty but is convicted by the magistrates or by a jury after evidence is heard.

Proofs in absence:

These are mostly minor motoring matters which are heard by the court in the absence of the defendant.

Non-Conviction Outcomes:

Acquittals/Dismissals after trial:

The defendant pleads not guilty and, following a trial, is acquitted by the jury or proceedings are dismissed by the magistrates.

Prosecutions Dropped:

Consideration of the evidence and of the public interest may lead the CPS to discontinue or drop proceedings at any time before the start of the trial. The figures include both cases discontinued in advance of the hearing, where the CPS offered no evidence and those withdrawn at court. Also included are cases in which the defendant was bound over to keep the peace.

Administratively Finalised (post charge):

When the prosecution cannot proceed because the defendant has failed to appear at court and a Bench Warrant has been issued for his or her arrest; or the defendant has died; been found unfit to plead; or where proceedings are adjourned indefinitely. If the police trace a missing defendant, then proceedings can continue.

Discharged:

Committal proceedings in which the defendant is discharged.

Principal Offence Category Data

The Principal Offence Category indicates the most serious offence with which the defendant is charged at the time of finalisation. Where the nature of the charges alters during the life of a case, the Principal Offence at the time of finalisation may be different than would have seemed appropriate at an earlier stage of proceedings. In all such cases the Principal Offence category to be recorded is that which applies at finalisation, regardless of whether this is more serious, or less serious, than would have applied earlier in the life of the case.   

Offences are divided into: homicide, offences against the person, sexual offences, burglary, robbery, theft & handling, fraud & forgery, criminal damage, drugs offences, public order, motoring, and all other offences excluding motoring.

CPS records do not identify the principal offence for cases resulting in an administrative finalisation or where the defendant has been committed for sentence. These are excluded from Table 3.1, Prosecution Data Tables.

Monitoring Flags

The CPS monitoring of cases involving offences of child abuse, crimes against older people, domestic abuse, hate crime, modern slavery and rape involve the application of monitoring ‘flags’ or case-markers to applicable cases that are recorded on the CPS’ electronic Case Management System (CMS). The data that is produced through the application of the flag is primarily used for monitoring performance on all cases that involve allegations or charges where these categories of criminal offending apply. The data is accurate only to the extent that the flags have been correctly applied.

The flag is applied from the onset of the case and will remain in place even if the charges are later amended or dropped. If a case commences under a different offence but during the prosecution an applicable charge is preferred, the case is flagged at that stage.

Child Abuse:

Any criminal offence which falls within the criteria set out in Appendix A of the Working Together to Safeguard Children document and/or as defined in the CPS legal guidance on Child Abuse and involves a victim under the age of 18.

Child abuse includes physical, emotional and sexual criminal offences, as well as neglect, of a child. Such cases would normally include, for example:

  • parental assault where reasonable chastisement is not a defence;
  • sexual offences;
  • child homicides;
  • child cruelty, including neglect;
  • child prostitution;
  • harassment;
  • abandonment of a child;
  • forced marriage involving an under 18 year-old;
  • child pornography;
  • trafficked children;
  • familial abduction; and
  • non-recent child abuse where victim is now an adult.

Cases that would not normally be expected to be flagged include:

  • motoring offences where the child has been injured or killed;
  • medical negligence; and
  • property offences.

Crime against an Older Person:

Where the victim is 65 or over, any criminal offence which is perceived by the victim or any other person, to be committed by reason of the victim’s vulnerability through age or presumed vulnerability through age.

Disability Hate Crime:

Any incident which is perceived, by the victim or any other person, to be motivated by hostility or prejudice towards a person because of their disability or perceived disability.

Domestic Abuse:

Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between those who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender or sexuality. Family members include mother, father, son, daughter, sister, and grandparents, whether directly related, in laws or step family. This is not an exhaustive list and may also be extended to uncles, aunts, cousins etc.

Homophobic Crime:

Any incident which is perceived by the victim or any other person, to be motivated by hostility or prejudice based on a person’s sexual orientation or perceived sexual orientation.

Human Trafficking/Modern Slavery

The following offences are flagged as human trafficking/modern slavery.

  • Offences committed prior to 31st July 2015, are:
  • Sexual Offences Act 2003 (Section 57)
  • Sexual Offences Act 2003 (Section 58)
  • Sexual Offences Act 2003 (Section 59)
  • Sexual Offences Act 2003 (Section 59A)
  • Asylum and Immigration [Treatment of Claimants] Act 2004 Section 4(1)
  • Asylum and Immigration [Treatment of Claimants] Act 2004 Section 4(2)
  • Asylum and Immigration [Treatment of Claimants] Act 2004 Section 4(3)
  • Asylum and Immigration [Treatment of Claimants] Act 2004 Section 4(1A)
  • Asylum and Immigration [Treatment of Claimants] Act 2004 Section 4(1B)
  • Asylum and Immigration [Treatment of Claimants] Act 2004 Section 4(1C)
  • Coroners and Justice Act 2009 (Section 71)

The Modern Slavery Act 2015 came into force on 31st July 2015. The offences to be flagged after this date are:

  • Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 1(a))
  • Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 1(b))
  • Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 2)
  • Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 4(2))
  • Modern Slavery Act 2015 (Section 4(3))

Racist Crime:

Any incident which is perceived, by the victim or any other person, to be motivated by a hostility or prejudice based on a person’s ethnicity or perceived ethnicity.

Religious Crime:

Any incident which is perceived, by the victim or any other person, to be motivated by a hostility or prejudice based on a person’s religion or perceived religion.

Rape:

The following offences are defined and flagged as rape by the CPS.

  • S1 Sexual Offences Act 1956
  • S5 Sexual Offences Act 1956
  • S1 Sexual Offences Act 2003
  • S5 Sexual Offences Act 2003
  • S30(3) Sexual Offences act 2003, also
    • An attempt to commit any of the above offences under the Criminal Attempts Act 1981
    • Incitement or conspiracy to commit any of the above offences

Transphobic Crime:

Any incident which is perceived by the victim or any other person, to be motivated by hostility or prejudice based on a person’s transgender identity or perceived transgender identity.

CPS Annual Data Tables

The data that forms the basis of the annual tables is derived from the CPS Case Management System (CMS), CPS Witness Management System (WMS) and its associated Management Information System (MIS). Defendant and complainant/witness data is held within separate databases within the MIS. Data cannot be correlated between the separate databases. The data tables include total data on all perpetrators and complainants, irrespective of sex or gender.

The Annual Data Tables for Violence against Women and Girls, Rape and Hate Crime provide breakdowns of pre-charge decisions and prosecution outcomes by CPS Area and by the originating Police Force Area.

Included are tables showing national breakdowns of the equality profiles of defendants and complainants for the most recent complete financial year.

In relation to complainant data, the WMS is a bespoke case management system designed by and for specialist Witness Care Unit (WCU) staff to effectively manage their cases. The WMS records complainant and witness data and, where recorded, the system includes data reporting equality profiles of complainants (and witnesses). The WMS can only provide data on the volumes of complainants associated with prosecution proceedings, by sex and age (where available), rather than the outcome of those prosecutions. It does not include any data which reports the volumes of alleged complainants associated with pre-charge proceedings and therefore cannot include data on police referrals and CPS charging.

Reasons for non-convictions

All cases resulting in an outcome other than a conviction are allocated a reason explaining why the case failed. If more than one reason applies, the principal reason is selected. Cases resulting in a post charge administrative finalisation are allocated the reason 'Admin Finalised'; no other reason need be recorded. If the defendant pleads not guilty, evidence is heard and the defence is required to present its case; and the case then results in acquittal or dismissal, then the reason 'Acquittal after trial' is allocated; no other reason applies. A reason must be allocated for all other non-conviction outcomes i.e. discontinued; withdrawn; no evidence offered; no case to answer; prosecution stayed; indictment stayed; left on file; judge directed acquittal; discharged committal.

Acquittals after trial: The defendant is found not guilty by the magistrates or jury after a contested hearing in which the defence is called on to present its case (Cases dismissed no case to answer or judge directed acquittals are not included).

Post-charge Administrative Finalisation: When a prosecution cannot proceed because a defendant: has failed to appear at court and a Bench Warrant has been issued for his or her arrest; or the defendant has died, or is found unfit to plead: or where proceedings are adjourned indefinitely. If a Bench Warrant is executed the case may be reopened.

Complainant Issues: During 2018-19, the CPS revised the list of reasons which apply to non-conviction outcomes. As a result it is no longer possible to separately report complainant retraction or withdrawal and non-attendance. It is however, still possible to report the total number of non-conviction outcomes due to complainant specific issues.

The reason should be used when the evidence of the complainant supports the prosecution case, but one or all of the following apply:

  • the complainant fails to attend, or
  • refuses to be called, or
  • to give evidence as a witness, or
  • withdraws a complaint, and
  • includes complainants who have been intimidated but it is inappropriate to compel them to attend court.

and

If the evidence of the complainant fails to support the prosecution of the defendant including issues of credibility leading to a non-conviction outcome, but the complainant has not retracted.

All Other Reasons: These include all other evidential reasons or where it was not in the public interest to continue the prosecution.

Equality Profiles

The equality profiles of defendants and complainants, by sex and age are reported on in these data tables. Also included is a breakdown by ethnicity for defendants flagged as domestic abuse.

Data on the gender of defendants and complainants are held in the CPS Management Information System, however the records are not complete. The gender of the defendant is unknown in some cases and may not be recorded in others.

Data on the age of defendants and complainants are collated by the CPS with reference to a series of age bands calculated from the date of birth recorded by the police. This means that the age band defendants are allocated to represents their current age rather than their age at the time the offence was committed. Individual ages cannot be disaggregated from these bands. The age band information should not be viewed as a comprehensive record of defendants' ages. Defendants with no date of birth recorded are allocated to a 'not provided' category.

Data on the ethnicity of defendants and complainants are collected by the CPS in accordance with the agreed Criminal Justice System definitions for the 16+1 self-defined ethnicity (SDE) categories. Police forces are required to use the SDE 16+1 codes when spoken contact has taken place and an individual has been given an opportunity to state their self-perceived ethnicity. Defendants may not state their ethnicity or it may not be recorded. Ethnicity data are provided by the police and are subject to varying levels of error and omission at local levels. We do not consider therefore that full reliance can be placed on this information.

Data Caveats

Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) caseload data are available through its Case Management System (CMS) and associated Management Information System (MIS). The CPS collects data to assist in the effective management of its prosecution functions. The CPS does not collect data which constitutes official statistics as defined in the Statistics and Registration Service Act 2007.

These data have been drawn from the CPS's administrative IT system, which, as with any large scale recording system, is subject to possible errors with data entry and processing. The figures are provisional and subject to change as more information is recorded by the CPS. We are committed to improving the quality of our data and from mid-June 2015 introduced a new data assurance regime which may explain some unexpected variance in some future data sets.

The official statistics relating to crime and policing are maintained by the Home Office and the official statistics relating to sentencing, criminal court proceedings, offenders brought to justice, the courts and the judiciary are maintained by the Ministry of Justice.

Available to download

Prosecutions: Quarterly reports, year ending September 2020
Pre-Charge: Quarterly reports, year ending September 2020
Prosecutions: Defendant Demographics Quarterly reports, year ending September 2020
Prosecutions: Crime Types Data Tables, year ending September 2020
Additional Data: Impact of COVID-19: Quarter 2 2020-2021

Further reading

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