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The Counter Terrorism Division of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) - cases concluded in 2016

Included in the list below is a brief summary of the cases which have been concluded in 2016. It should be noted that, as a general rule, a defendant is entitled to a one third discount on his sentence if he pleads guilty at the earliest opportunity, with a sliding scale for guilty pleas which are entered later than that. If a defendant is found guilty after trial, the Court can consider the maximum tariff to be available, subject to any personal mitigation that may be submitted on the defendant's behalf. Where a life sentence has been imposed, the tariff shown as the minimum sentence is the time to be served before parole can be considered. Some life sentences are shown as indefinite in which case it is for the Parole Board to monitor the defendant's progress towards a time when he can be considered for release.

Please note that in several of these cases reference is made to Daesh, also known as Islamic State, ISIS, ISIL and other names. The term used in each case is that which the defendants used to refer to the organisation or was used in evidence.

R v Tarrik Hassane, Suheib Majeed, Nyall Hamlett and Nathan Cuffy

Between July 2014 and October 2014 Tarik Hassane, aged 22, and Suheib Majeed, aged 21, both from West London, plotted to carry out at least one, and probably multiple, terrorist murders using a silenced firearm. Their most likely targets were police officers or servicemen in London.

Mr. Hassane, who was studying medicine in Khartoum, and Mr. Majeed, physics undergraduate at Kings College London, devised their plot using a variety of secure and encrypted systems to communicate. When discussing key aspects they would often use code words in an attempt to disguise their true purpose. Their preparations included the sourcing of the all-important gun, a moped and a storage unit.

The plot was for terrorist purposes linked to ISIL. Mr. Hassane and Mr. Majeed both possessed mind-set material, providing insight into their ideology, and into the essential terrorist purpose underlying the plot. This ideology was confirmed by Mr. Hassane pledging allegiance to ISIL in July 2014, and by their reaction to an ISIL issued fatwa which sanctioned violent action against the West.

On 23 September 2014 two of their criminal associates, Nyall Hamlett, aged 25, and Nathan Cuffy, aged 26, supplied Mr. Majeed with a gun, silencer and ammunition, a combination described in court as "an assassin's weapon". Having collected these items Mr. Majeed took them back to his home address and almost immediately on his return he sent a message to Mr. Hassane which said "Got it".

In the evening of 24 September police officers executed a search warrant at Mr. Majeed's home address. On forcing entry to the property, the gun, silencer and ammunition were thrown from Mr Majeed's bedroom window. Mr. Majeed, Mr. Hamlett and Mr. Cuffy were all arrested.

Mr. Hassane flew back to Heathrow on 30 September 2014. Between 1 and 5 October, he conducted online reconnaissance of a police station and a Territorial Army barracks, intending to pursue his murderous aims in spite of his co-conspirator's arrest. He was, however, prevented from doing so when he was himself arrested on 7 October.

Mr. Hassane pleaded guilty to conspiracy to murder and preparation of terrorist acts contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006. He was sentenced to life imprisonment and ordered to serve a minimum term of 21 years. Mr Majeed, Mr. Hamlett, and Mr. Cuffy pleaded guilty before or during the trial to a number of charges of possessing or supplying the firearm and ammunition that was to be used in the plot. Cuffy also pleaded guilty to possessing other firearms that were recovered from an address linked to him. Mr. Majeed was convicted of conspiracy to murder and preparation of terrorist acts and was sentenced to life imprisonment with a minimum term of 20 years. Hamlett and Cuffy received terms of imprisonment totalling 6 years and six months and 11 years respectively.

R v Tareena Shakil

Tareena Shakil, 26 years old, was of previous good character. She is a UK national with a two year old son. On Friday 24 October 2014 her father Mohammed contacted the police to say she was missing from the family home with her then 18 month old son. Having been reported missing by her family the police went to her home address and found that she had left a handwritten message which read "Don't be sad. I'm keeping it short and sweet to prevent my own tears. We WILL meet again and I'll be looking forward to that day all my life. Love you forever xx Remember to make dua xx".

Between July and October 2014 Ms Shakil had become prolific on social media, putting out numerous tweets and imagery that suggested she supported Daesh. On 19 October 2014 (the day before her departure from the UK), she displayed clear support for Daesh by posting a twitter profile with Daesh supporting iconography and a post that read 'if people don't like the current events in Sham to take to arms and not the keyboard'.

On 20 October 2014 she left the UK with her son, arriving in Turkey before onward travel to Ar Raqqa in Syria where she joined Daesh. She had access to both firearms and the internet and she maintained contact with family members in the UK where she variously glorified Daesh and spoke of the possibility of martyrdom and marrying a Daesh fighter. This included her sending images of firearms to her family and her son wearing a balaclava with the ISIS logo.

However, on 7 January 2015 she left Raqqa with her son and made her way to the Turkish border where she was arrested by Turkish authorities. Her motive for and method of doing so may never be known. She explained in police interview that she had travelled to Turkey for a holiday before being kidnapped by ISIS, and that all the messaging she sent to her family were done by ISIS for publicity.

She was charged with one offence of encouraging terrorism contrary to section 1 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and one offence of belonged to a proscribed organisation, namely ISIS, contrary to section 11 of the Terrorism Act 2000. She was convicted after trial and received 4 years' imprisonment for membership of a proscribed organisation and 2 years' imprisonment to be served consecutively for encouraging terrorism.

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R v Ayman Shaukat, Alex Nash, Kerry Thomason and Lorna Moore

On 10 August 2014 Kerry Thomason drove her husband to the airport in full knowledge of his intention to travel to Syria and also purchased him a laptop the day before his travel.

Ayman Shaukat engaged in coded communications with two men and also assisted them in their travel to Syria. On 23 August 2014, he drove a male called Mr Aslam to the airport, in full knowledge of Mr Alsam's ambition to fight for Daesh and subsequently arranged for the disposal of Mr Aslam's property.

Lorna Moore also knew the purpose of Mr Aslam's travel, evidenced in a number of ways but most clearly in a voice recording she made of them speaking before his travel, where she says she won't report him to the police in relation to him 'going out to fight'.

Mr Shaukat then drove another male, Alex Nash, to the airport, arranged funding for his travel and arranged the subsequent disposal of his property. Mr Nash travelled with the intent to join ISIL, evidenced by extensive communications, which he subsequently admitted.

Mr Shaukat was charged with two offences contrary to section 5(1)(b) of the Terrorism Act 2006 and Ms Thomason was charged with one such offence in relation to the assistance they gave to others to Syria. On his return to the UK Mr Nash was charged with one offence contrary to section 5(1)(a) of the Terrorism Act 2006 in relation to his own travel. Ms Moore was charged with one offence contrary to s38B of the Terrorism Act 2000.

At trial Ms Thomason admitted her involvement immediately and the Judge found that she had been a victim of a violent and dangerous relationship. She was sentenced to two years' imprisonment, suspended for two years, for her role in her husband's travel.

Ms Moore was found guilty after trial. The Judge found that she herself had intended to travel to Syria with her children to join her husband. For failing to notify the police as to her husband's terrorist activity she was sentenced to 30 months' imprisonment.

Mr Nash admitted that he was travelling to join the conflict in Syria and was sentenced to five years' imprisonment, taking into account a related sentence he had already served.

Mr Shaukat was convicted after trial of both charges. The Judge found him to be a ringleader and organiser with entrenched violent extremist views, referring to his "dedication to the cause" when finding that he satisfied the legal test of dangerousness. He was sentenced to ten years' imprisonment with an extended licence term of five years.

Ms Moore and Mr Shaukhat's sentences are currently being appealed.

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R v Abubakar Abubakar

Abubakar Abubakar was charged with possessing a document containing information of a kind likely to be of use to a person preparing or committing an act of terrorism contrary to section 58(1)(b) of the Terrorism Act 2000. The document in question was a magazine called 'Smashing Borders - Black Flags from Syria'. Within this document was an article entitled, 'The 22 drone evasion tactics of AQIM' which provides advice on how to avoid detection and attacks by drones. An expert report was obtained from an RAF Officer who concluded that the majority of the tactics, techniques and procedures suggested were both credible and feasible as methods to counter drones and also to counter surveillance of any kind; the information would therefore be useful to a terrorist. Abubakar pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 15 months' imprisonment suspended for 24 months. He was made the subject of a 24 month supervision order and a 10 year notification requirement.

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R v Forhad Rahman, Adeel Brekke and Kaleem Kristen Ulhaq

All three defendants assisted a male called Aseel Muthana leave the UK so that he could join his older brother in Syria and participate in the ongoing conflict.

Mr Rahman was 21 years old and first met Mr Muthana via social media. They became friends and met up on more than one occasion. Mr Rahman paid for a passport service for Mr Muthana, his coach ticket from Cardiff to Gatwick and his flight from Gatwick to Cyprus. Mr Muthana travelled from Cyprus on to Syria, from where he has never returned.

Mr Brekke was 19 years old at the relevant time. He purchased a number of items over the internet, such as camouflage clothing, intending that Mr Ulhaq would take these items with him. A number of computer searches including 'Groups in Syria 2014' and 'Military bases in Syria' were also carried out on Mr Brekke's computer, which either Mr Brekke did or he allowed Mr Muthana to do. Mr Brekke looked after a bag for Mr Muthana, which he collected before he left the UK to travel to Syria.

Prior to leaving the UK, Mr Muthana and Mr Brekke made a video of themselves on a hill near Cardiff in possession of an imitation firearm. Mr Muthana is heard to say 'If you're watching this I'm probably dead, or I'm probably a legend or something…' He said he wanted to sing Jihadi nasheeds (religious songs), but did not appear to know any. At one point he chuckled and said in Arabic 'The Islamic State in Cardiff and Iraq and Shaam' and 'It's like a training camp up here'

Mr Ulhaq was 20 years old at the relevant time. He provided Mr Muthana with valuable advice via online discussions, before and after Mr Muthana left the UK. The advice demonstrated that despite his youth, he had a great deal of knowledge of the ongoing conflict in Syria and a network of contacts, which could be used by others seeking to become involved in the conflict.

Mr Ulhaq also arranged to send money to a social media user, whom he had only met online but believed was participating in the ongoing conflict in Syria. The conversation was in code, but it was clear that the money was to buy ammunition for use in the ongoing conflict in Syria. When chatting to the social media user Mr Ulhaq expressed his own desire to travel to Syria.

All three were charged with one offence contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 in respect of the help they gave to Mr Muthana, and Mr Ulhaq was also charged with one offence contrary to section 17 of the Terrorism Act 2000 in relation to the funding arrangement. All three were found guilty after a trial. Mr Rahman was sentenced to five years' imprisonment. Mr Brekke was sentenced to four years' and six months' imprisonment. Mr Ulhaq was sentenced to five years' imprisonment for assisting Mr Muthana, and one year's imprisonment, to run concurrently, for sending money to the social media user. Mr Rahman and Mr Ulhaq were made subject to notification requirements for 15 years and Mr Brekke for 10 years.

Mr Ulhaq is appealing his sentence.

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R v Blaise Tchoula Thcouamo

On 1 December 2015 Mr Tchoula Tchouamo arrived at London City Airport on a flight from Paris. He was questioned by Border Agency Officers (BAOs), who were concerned that his passport might be a forgery.

BAOs requested assistance from the police. The police officers repeatedly explained to Mr. Tchouamo that checks were being carried out in respect of his passport and that this was a normal procedure. Mr. Tchouamo repeatedly told the police officers that he did not recognise their authority and was aggressive and shouting.

After BAOs had confirmed that there were no issues with his passport, Mr. Tchouamo was shown a copy of the 'Schedule 7 Terrorism Act 2000 Public Information' leaflet. Using the leaflet officers repeatedly explained the Schedule 7 procedure, but Mr Tchouamo would not cooperate. Mr. Tchouamo had his rights and obligations repeatedly explained to him, but he continued to refuse to cooperate, acting in an obstructive manner, not acknowledging the officers and not answering their questions.

He was arrested for 'wilfully failing to comply with a duty imposed by Schedule 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000 and was subsequently charged with one offence contrary to paragraph 18 (c) of schedule 7.

Mr Tchouamo pleaded not guilty and his trial was heard at Westminster Magistrates' Court where he repeatedly refused to recognise the jurisdiction of the court. He was found guilty and was fined £300 and ordered to pay costs in the sum of £350 and the Victim Surcharge.

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R v Adam Barik

On Tuesday 2 February 2016 Mr. Barik was stopped at Heathrow Airport, having just arrived from Istanbul. Mr. Barik was informed that he had been selected for an examination under Schedule 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000, and was escorted to an examination room.

Mr. Barik was given a copy of the public information leaflet about Schedule 7 examinations and confirmed that he understood his rights and duties.

Mr. Barik and his property were searched and his finger prints were taken. He replied 'no comment', to all of the questions that were put to him. He was reminded of his rights and duties under Schedule 7 and that he would be committing an offence if he chose not to answer the questions. Mr. Barik confirmed that he understood and continued to answer 'no comment' to all questions.

Mr. Barik was arrested for wilfully obstructing an examination under schedule 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000. He was interviewed under police caution with his solicitor present and provided a prepared statement. He said that he had not cooperated with the schedule 7 examination so that he could consult a solicitor in person rather than on a police telephone and explained he had been doing aid work and that he wanted to stay in the UK with his wife and child.

He pleaded guilty at Westminster Magistrates' Court. In mitigation his solicitor explained that he had followed legal advice, and he had wanted to answer the questions and plead guilty at an earlier stage. He was fined £350, and ordered to pay costs of £250 and Victim Surcharge of £45.

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R v Junead Khan and Shazib Khan

On 14 July 2015 Junead Khan and his younger uncle Shazib Khan were arrested. Investigation revealed that at various times between August 2014 and their arrest they had been intent on travelling to Syria to join the proscribed organisation Islamic State in Levant (ISIL). Junead Khan had a copy of 'A brief guide to the Islamic State' published in 2015 and (among other items) a list giving the currency exchange rates in ISIL. He had also a compiled a list of the clothing he would need to take attempting to disguise the significance of it by portraying it as a clothing list for Umrah (pilgrimage) even though it contained cold weather clothing such as boots, winter coat and gloves. Shazib Khan had bought items of clothing and equipment such as a rucksack, gloves and combat trousers but most tellingly had had numerous KIK conversations with individuals already with ISIL in which he set out his aspiration to join them and to 'seek shahada' (martyrdom).

On 11 May 2015 Junead Khan had started work as a delivery driver. This work brought him near to armed forces bases including USAF bases in Norfolk. Examination of his phone following arrest revealed messaging on 5 July 2015 in which he was told by another individual that he could get him addresses of British soldiers or that he could tell him how to make a bomb. Junead Khan told him that 'When I saw these us soldiers on road it just looked simple but I had nothing on me or would've got into an accident with them and made them get out the car'. The other individual says 'That's what the brother done with Lee Rigby' and that he has pipe bomb instructions and a manual for a pressure cooker bomb for back up should the attack go wrong. Junead Khan says 'Yes brother Mujahid style, accident than attack'. Examination of his phone also revealed instructions on how to make a pressure cooker bomb and an email he had sent on 7 July 2015 (via Amazon UK) to an Italian company suppliers of the Ontario SP1 marine combat knife in which he asks how long delivery of the knife would take and whether they deliver to the UK. This make of knife had been included in a 'wish list' that the police recovered from Junead Khan's bedroom.

Both men were charged with acts in preparation for terrorism contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 in relation to their plans to join ISIL and were convicted after trial. Junead Khan alone faced a second charge of acts in preparation for terrorism contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 in relation to his plan to attack military personnel and was also convicted of this offence after trial. Shazib Khan was sentenced to 7 years' imprisonment with an extended licence period of 5 years. Junead Khan was sentenced to 7 years' imprisonment for this offence but it was concurrent to the sentence for his second offence for which a life sentence was imposed with a minimum term of imprisonment to be served of 12 years.

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R v Zafreen Khadam

In early 2015 a complaint was made to police that a person with the Twitter account @PRINCESSKAFAH was utilising it as a tool to post Islamic State propaganda and encourage others to join the Islamic State and instigate acts of violence. The user of the account was later identified as Zafreen Khadam residing in the Sheffield area. Ms Khadam was found to have opened 14 twitter profiles during the period between 25 February 2015 and 27 March 2015. The accounts were later suspended by Twitter due to the nature of the extreme content she was posting.

One such tweet provides a link to the Dabiq series issues 1-7. Another link took the reader to 'a web based Islamic State document'. This document sought to justify the activity of the Islamic State (IS) and warns various countries regarding the threat of violence from IS. The document specifically targets France, America, Tunisia, Algeria, The Yemen, the Jewish religion and England amongst others. The document also encourages the online dissemination of IS literature in order to support its cause. It makes specific reference to the sending of IS videos, pictures and the use of social media to spread IS literature. The web page states that at the time of evidential capture the document had been viewed on 1464 occasions.

A further tweet captured contained a link to an IS video displaying training of young children (ISIS video production). The video contains direct threats of violence made by two young children dressed in military clothing, with one child stating "I will be the one who slaughters you, O kuffar. I will be a mujahid, insha'allah." The second child states "We're going to kill you, O kuffar. Insha'allah we'll slaughter you".

Ms Khadam also used the social media application WhatsApp to send material to various contacts. The material was pro IS in nature and the most disturbing of the videos sent was the execution video of a Jordanian pilot. The video is entitled 'WARNING, EXTREMELY GRAPHIC VIDEO_ ISIS burns hostage alive1'. This video is 22 minutes and 34 seconds in length. Following the footage of the Jordanian pilot's death a number of other pilots are shown on screen. Each pilot is shown with a photo, latitude and longitude co-ordinates of their home address and rank. The caption shown with each pilot is 'WANTED DEAD'.

In addition there were in excess of 2000 messages exchanged with a man who purports to be a fighter in Syria. In the exchanges Ms Khadam indicated that she intended to marry him and move to Syria.

Ms Khadam was charged with 10 offences of dissemination of terrorist publications contrary to section 2 of the Terrorism Act 2006. She was convicted after trial of all ten charges and received a 4 years' and 6 months' imprisonment.

She is currently appealing her sentence.

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R v Mohammed Shaheryar Alam

On 19 July 2015 Mr Alam sent a link to a video entitled "Hadiths referring to ISIS" to two people, using Paltalk messenger. The link was accompanied by messages encouraging the recipient to watch the video stating, "watch this video regarding ISIS in prophesy." The video describes the rise of Daesh (ISIS) in the Sham region as part of prophesy leading to the "end of times" and the return of "Mahdi". It does so by quoting a series of hadiths (a report describing the words, actions, or habits of the prophet Muhammad) and then demonstrating how those scriptures have been fulfilled. In the background it features footage well known members of Daesh and scenes of fighting.

Mr Alam was charged with disseminating a terrorist publication contrary to section 2 of the Terrorism Act 2006 on the basis that he was reckless as to whether it would encourage the commission or preparation of a terrorist act. He was convicted after trial and sentenced to two and a half years' imprisonment and was made subject to notification requirements for a period of 10 years. In passing this sentence the judge noted that Mr Alam knew that the video would be interpreted as endorsing Daesh, believed his recipients to be devout Muslims and was reckless as to whether they would be encouraged to commit an act of terrorism. However he was also of good character and his diagnosed mental health problems may have contributed to his poor judgment.

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R v Mohammed Moshin Ameen

Between March 2015 and November 2015 Mr Ameen sent approximately 8,000 tweets using 16 different Twitter accounts in 42 different names. A significant proportion of these messages expressed support for Daesh and at least 250 encouraged the commission of a terrorist act or invited support for Daesh.

Mr Ameen was charged with five offences of encouraging a terrorist act contrary to section 1 of the Terrorism Act 2006, one offence of disseminating a terrorist publication contrary to section 2 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and one offence of inviting support for a proscribed organisation contrary to section 12 of the Terrorism Act 2000. The five charges contrary to section 1 were specimen counts. The tweets, looked at individually or when taken as a whole, amounted to a sustained effort indirectly to encourage others to engage in terrorism. They included messages which glorified those who support and have acted in support of Daesh, celebrate acts of terrorism by Daesh and encourage the emulation of terrorist actions by establishing religious and social grounds for terrorist action, portraying those who engage in such action as role models and celebrating a view of the future which, by its nature, could only be achieved by terrorist action. The charge contrary to section 2 related to a Daesh propaganda video entitled "For The Sake of Allah" which shows Daesh fighters in combat and is set to a seductive melodic chant with repetitive words which are sung in English and superimposed in English over the footage to the music. This video constitutes one of the first examples of an English nasheed, promulgated by Daesh, to have been seen within the UK. The charge contrary to section 12 related to two messages inviting the reader to give "bayah" (an oath of allegiance) to Daesh.

He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to five years' imprisonment and was made subject to notification requirements for a period of 15 years. The judge noted that the offending was aggravated by the explicit and intentional nature of the encouragement and by the persistence with which it was pursued.

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R v Nadir Sayed

Mr Syed and two others were jointly charged with an offence contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 for their suspected involvement in a plot to behead a member or members of the public in the days around Remembrance Sunday in 2014. Nadir Syed was convicted after trial and was sentenced to life imprisonment with a minimum term of 15 years. (One of the others was acquitted and the jury were unable to reach a verdict in respect of the third.)

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R v Ibrahim Anderson and Shah Jahan Khan

Both males were part of a group distributing leaflets on Oxford Street in August 2014 inviting support for the caliphate recently declared by the group then calling itself the Islamic State. During searches of their homes a guide on how to travel to Syria to join Islamic State was found at Mr Anderson's address. Both males were charged with an offence of inviting support for a proscribed organisation contrary to section 12 of the Terrorism Act 2000. Mr Anderson was also charged with an offence contrary to section 58 of the Terrorism Act 2000 for possessing information of a kind likely to be of use to someone intending to carry out an act or acts of terrorism. Both were convicted following a trial and each received a sentence of 2 years' imprisonment for inviting support for the section 12 offence and Mr Anderson was sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment for the s58 offence which was ordered to be served consecutively.

R v Naseer Taj

In late December 2014 Mr Taj was arrested, two days before he was to travel to Syria to join and fight with ISIS or the Islamic State (IS). A search of Mr Taj's property recovered electronic devices, including a mobile phone which contained a publication called "Inspire Four - "Winter 1431/2010". All the articles within this publication seek to encourage its readers to join in global jihad. There is advice within the document that advises its readers to dispossess non-Muslims of their wealth by fraudulent means. It also contains speeches from well-known proponents of violent Islamic extremism Osama Bin Laden and Anwar al-Awlaki. On p.39-41 there is an article about "destroying buildings" by the "AQ Chef" which is of realistic practical assistance to someone who was considering carrying out an act of terrorism. The phone also contained Issue 12: Spring 2014/1435 which contains practical guidance on the preparation and deployment of car bombs and suitable targets in the US, the UK and in France for maximum casualties. Police also recovered numerous items of recently purchased outdoor wear for the adverse weather conditions in Syria, including Shemagh scarves, as seen worn by many fighters in the Middle East, receipts for the shop Go Outdoors, new Magnum (combat/military style) boots, new Karrimor outdoor jackets, combat trousers and a tactical utility belt. They also found a number of DVDs produced by 'Islam4uk', who were proscribed under the Terrorism Act on 14 January 2010.

Mr Taj is the user of a Twitter account in the name of Abu Bakr Al Kashmiri @abubakr1492. The background profile picture for this account is the picture of an individual referred to as 'Jihadi John', the individual responsible for beheading UK and US hostages.

The main profile image is of Ilyas KASHMIRI who was reportedly the leader of Al Qaeda in KASHMIR. Below the image is a declaration: "MY ALLEGIANCE IS TO ALLAAH, HIS MESSENGER SAAS & KHALIFATUL MUSLIMEEN ABU BAKR AL-BAGHDADI KEEP CALM & BEHEAD Z KAFIR" (Abu Bakr Al-Bagdadi is the self-declared leader of the IS.)

Whatsapp messages were recovered between Mr Taj and a male called Uddin where Mr Taj was seeking his advice as to the best place to go in Syria and where he could be a suicide bomber.

Mr Taj was charged with one offence contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and two offences contrary to Section 58 of the Terrorism Act 2000 and an offence contrary to section 4 of the Identity Documents Act 2010. He was convicted after trial and was sentenced to two years' imprisonment for each of the s58 offences to run concurrently, five years' and six months' imprisonment for the section 5 offence to run consecutively to the two year sentence and a further nine months to run consecutively for the identity documents offence, a total of eight years' and three months 'imprisonment with a 15 year notification period.

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R v Rebecca Poole

On 19 January 2016 the police executed a search warrant at the address where Ms Poole was living. Having seized and analysed her computer, the police found that a copy of 'How to Survive in the West - a Mujahid Guide 2016' had been downloaded and saved on to the computer. This document contained chapters on a variety of subjects, such as weapons and bomb making.

It was also found that Ms Poole had been talking to a number of other people on social media, in conversations which she was:

  • expressing a desire to marry a jihadi warrior;
  • expressing a desire to travel to Syria to live under ISIS; and
  • expressing a desire to become a suicide bomber, possibly so she could end her life.

On 9 March 2016 Ms Poole was charged with one offence of collecting information likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism, contrary to section 58 of the Terrorism Act 2000.

On 11 October 2016 Ms Poole was found not fit to plead but to have been in possession of the material. Having received reports from two doctors and heard from one of them, the court made Ms Poole subject to a Hospital Order with restrictions.

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R v Mohammed Uddin

On 4 November 2014 Uddin took the Eurostar to Belgium and then took a flight to Istanbul the following day; he was accompanied by his Norweigan girlfriend. On 15 December 2014 he was detained by the Gendarmerie General Command close to the Syrian border and he was taken into custody by the Turkish authorities. On 22 December 2014 he returned to the UK and was arrested.

He was interviewed by police and stated that he had travelled to Turkey on 4 November for a holiday with his secret girlfriend and had planned to return on 11 November. Uddin claimed to have stayed at hotels in Istanbul until 8 December 2014 when he said he discovered that he had lost his passport. He said that he went to a Turkish police station and they told him to go to the British Embassy in Ankara so he took a bus to Ankara but fell asleep on the bus and missed his stop. He said he then woke in the early hours of the morning in Gazientep (near the Syrian border) and a military officer asked to see his documentation (which he did not have) and he was then detained.

Uddin's property was seized when he was arrested and the clothing found within his 65L Karrimor Rucksack consisted mainly of outdoor active wear (similar to that worn by professional security services) it was not the type of clothing usually associated with someone travelling on a holiday. Two mobile telephones and a laptop were also found in his possession. It was ascertained that he booked and paid for travel to Turkey and that he had purchased a number of items in October 2014 which would be of use in Syria including Patrol boots, thermals and other clothing and a lightweight Rugged Solar Powered Monkey Explorer. Several conversations found within the social media applications on his media devices provided evidence of Uddin's intention to enter Syria for the purpose of joining ISIS and engaging in combat.

From the available evidence it appeared that he entered Syria through Turkey on or shortly after 7 November 2014 and crossed the border back into Turkey on around 15 December 2014. Uddin therefore spent a little over five weeks in Syria. Within a relatively short period after his arrival in Syria, he expressed discontentment regarding the slowness of progress in reaching a training camp and disillusionment with the prevailing system in Syria. He also experienced pressure to return to the UK, where his wife awaited the birth of their child. His plans to return to the UK may have been slowed by the fact that his passport had been confiscated from him. Whilst Uddin chose to return to the UK, some of his messages indicate an intention to return at some future point to Syria.

Uddin pleaded guilty to one count of preparation of terrorist acts, contrary to section 5 Terrorism Act 2006 and was sentenced to seven years' imprisonment with an extended licence period of one year under the provisions of section 236A of Part 1 of Schedule 1 of the Criminal Justice and Courts Act 2015. He was also made subject to the notification provisions for a period of 15 years under Part 4 of the Counter Terrorism Act 2008. Uddin sought leave to appeal his sentence, submitting that it was manifestly excessive, but leave was refused.

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R v Steven Singh Narwain

On 09 December 2015 at Birmingham Airport Mr Narwain and another tried to check in a 4kg case for transportation in the hold of an aircraft at a cost of £40. Staff became suspicious as the case was small enough to carry on to the aircraft as hand luggage at no cost once it had gone through security clearance. The case was checked and found to contain in excess of €33,000 cash. The cash was seized and Mr Narwain and his companion were allowed to board their flight. Checks revealed that Mr Narwain had used Birmingham airport on approximately 20 occasions in six months.

On Tuesday 26 April 2016 at 15.10hrs, Mr Narwain was stopped by police on his arrival at Birmingham Airport after he had passed through immigration control. Officers sought to question Mr Narwain using powers under Schedule 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000.

During the course of the examination Mr Narwain was asked to hand over his mobile phone and PIN code. Mr Narwain removed his white iPhone 5 from his shoulder bag and placed it on the floor. He told officers "you are not having my fucking phone" and stamped on his phone three times in quick succession and then stood over it, impeding officer's attempt to pick it up from the floor. Mr Narwain was asked to provide the PIN code for the phone and initially refused and then subsequently claimed not to remember the PIN code.

Mr Narwain was asked if he had any luggage in his possession, or to be collected from the carousel, and whether he had any ticket to identify his luggage. Mr Narwain initially told officers that he did not have any luggage, but a little later in the examination told officers he had one suitcase, blue in colour and around 3 feet in length. An officer was instructed to collect the case and spent approximately 30 minutes in the arrivals hall looking for the item without success.

On the officer's return to the examination room Mr Narwain was told that there was no luggage matching the description given. Mr Narwain confirmed he did not have any luggage. On being asked why had lied he responded "You're messing me around, I'm messing you around" and laughed.

Mr Narwain was charged with an offence of wilfully obstructing, or seeking to frustrate, a search or examination under Schedule 7, contrary to paragraph 18(c) of Schedule 7 Terrorism Act 2000. He pleaded guilty at the first hearing at Westminster Magistrate' on 04 October 2016. In mitigation, Mr Narwain's solicitor stated Mr Narwain had been tired and frustrated, on medication for his broken hand and had been drinking on his flight from India. He admitted he was belligerent and accepted what the officers say. He was sentenced to 7 days' imprisonment and a one year Supervision Order.

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R v Thomas Mair

On Thursday 16 June 2016, Jo Cox MP was tragically murdered by Thomas Mair in Market Street in Birstall, near Batley in Kirklees. It was a cowardly attack by a man armed with a firearm and a knife. Jo Cox was shot three times and suffered multiple stab wounds. During the course of the murder Mair was heard by a number of witnesses to say repeatedly "Britain First", "Keep Britain independent", "Britain will always come first".

In the course of the sustained attack on the MP, a 77-year-old local man, Bernard Carter Kenny, risked his own life in an effort to save hers and because of his brave intervention, he was also stabbed by Mair.

Evidence gathered clearly showed that Mair was motivated by hatred. When searched, his home contained a wealth of material showing a very deep rooted interest in extreme far-right politics. He had a selection of books about the Nazis, German military history and white supremacy together with the Third Reich eagle with a swastika. He had kept newspaper clippings of the Norwegian far right terrorist Anders Breivik who used a rifle to kill sixty nine social-democrat youth workers and detonated a bomb killing eight people.

Mair was a member of his local public library in Birstall. He used the library computers to research such matters as the BNP, white supremacists, Nazis and public shootings. Just a few days before the murder, he looked at webpages on the Ku Klux Klan, serial killers and matricide. He also read up on the death of Ian Gow, the last MP to have been murdered before Jo Cox.'

There was no evidence to suggest that Mair made any efforts to make contact with likeminded individuals; it appears he was self-radicalised. In 1988, he subscribed to a right-wing magazine called SA Patriot, which was initially published in South Africa by the Springbok Club, but moved to the UK and was renamed SA Patriot in Exile. In 1998 he wrote a letter to the magazine and was critical of the British media's reporting of South Africa, he ended the letter by stating; "Despite everything, I still have faith that the white race will prevail, both in Britain and in South Africa but I fear that it's going to be a very long and very bloody struggle."

In 1997, he wrote another letter to the magazine stating "I was glad you strongly condemned collaborators in the white South African population. In my opinion the greatest enemy of the old apartheid system was not the ANC and the black masses but white liberals and traitors."

During the first court appearance at Westminster Magistrates Court, Mair shouted "death to traitors, Britain comes first". Mair condemned those he perceived to be collaborators, traitors to his race.

In the immediate aftermath of the murder, there were suggestions that Mair had a history of mental illness. However, no psychiatric reports were relied upon in his defence. He was therefore held responsible for his actions and was prosecuted as a 'lone-actor' terrorist.

Some questioned why Mair was charged with murder and not with terrorism offences, whilst others asked why it was terrorism. The murder came within the definition of 'terrorism' as set out in section 1 Terrorism Act 2000. The definition covers, amongst other things, threats or action involving serious violence against the person where this is for the purpose of advancing a political, religious, ideological or racial cause. Mair was charged and convicted of the same charges as Michael Adebolajo and Michael Adebowale, the killers of Lee Rigby.

The Honourable Mr Justice Wilkie concluded in sentencing Mair to life in prison; "there is no doubt that this murder was done for the purpose of advancing a political, racial and ideological cause namely that of violent white supremacism and exclusive nationalism most associated with Nazism and its modern forms".

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R v Abdalla and Rasmus

Anas Abdalla and Gabriel Rasmus were arrested on 3 April 2015 having hidden themselves in the back of a lorry at the Port of Dover. It was an attempt to leave the UK covertly for the purposes of joining Daesh and engaging in acts of terrorism with the proscribed organisation. Both men had, for some time, been the subject of an operation by West-Midlands Counter Terrorism police in which an undercover officer had gathered evidence of their intention to become fighters with Daesh and the conduct they engaged in for the purpose of giving effect to that intention. Mr Abdalla and Mr Rasmus were jointly charged with a single offence contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006. On 20 November 2015 Mr Rasmus pleaded guilty to that offence. On 13 October 2016, following a retrial, Mr Abdalla was convicted.

On 7 November 2016 Mr Rasmus was sentenced to 4 years and 3 months' imprisonment and Mr Abdalla was sentenced to 5 years' imprisonment.

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R v Golamaully and Golamaully

Mr and Mrs Golamaully pleaded guilty to an offence of terrorist funding contrary to section 15(3) Terrorism Act 2000. The recipient of monies was their nephew, Zaffir Golamaully, who had travelled from Mauritius to Syria to fight for ISIS.

Mr Golamaully was in contact with Zaffir through Whatsapp messaging. Zaffir indicated that he had been at a training camp and was fighting in Syria and asked that Mr Golamaully send money to him via a third party in Turkey. Mr Golamaully then arranged for his wife to send £219, which she did via Western Union.

Police arrested Mrs Golamaully and seized computers at her address. Interrogation of the computers revealed messages between Zaffir and Mr Golamaully of what he was doing in Syria. It transpired from the messaging that Mr and Mrs Gollamaully had lied to Zaffir's parents as to what he was doing in Turkey. In addition, a considerable amount of mind-set evidence in support of ISIS that included all of the Dabiq publications was found on the computers.

Both pleaded guilty. Mr Golamaully was sentenced to 2 years 3 months' imprisonment. Mrs Golamaully was sentenced to 1 year 10 months' imprisonment. Both are subject to a terrorism notification order for 10 years.

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R v Hoque and Miah

Both were charged with terrorist funding contrary to section 17(3) of the Terrorism Act 2000.

This related to the provision of funds and equipment via aid convoys to Mr Hoque's nephew, who was in Syria fighting for the proscribed organisation known as Jabhat al Nursra.

Mr Hoque would transport the money and equipment on an aid convoy from the UK and give it to Mr Miah who was based on the Turkish/Syrian border on the pretence of working for an aid charity. Mr Miah would then supply the equipment and money to Mr Hoque's nephew and his group.

Mr Hoque and Mr Miah were convicted after trial.Mr Hoque was sentenced to 5 years' imprisonment and Mr Miah was sentenced to 2.5 years' imprisonment. The terrorism notification period for both is 10 years.

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R v Hana Gul Khan

On 27 March 2015 Hana Gul Khan was sentenced at the Central Criminal Court to 21 months' imprisonment suspended for two years, given a two year supervision order and a 10 year Terrorism Act notification period, having been convicted of a funding offence contrary to s17 Terrorism Act 2000. Ms Gul Khan completed her initial notification on the day of sentencing and provided her name as Hana Gul Khan. On 24 March 2016 Ms Gul Khan attended a police station for her annual notification and admitted she had completed a name change around January 2016 and was using the name Hana Khalil and had obtained a new driving licence in breach of her notification requirements.

She pleaded guilty and was sentenced on 25 November 2016 to a total of 180 hours Community Order (100 hours for breach of the notification order and 80 hours for the original suspended offence).

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R v Abdul Hamid

Mr Hamid was arrested on 18 February 2016 on suspicion of dissemination of a terrorist publication, contrary to section 2 of the 2006 Act. His arrest was the result of an investigation by Metropolitan Police following Daesh propaganda material being posted by him onto his Facebook page, specifically the video publication 'No Respite'. The video is just over 4 minutes duration and the contents celebrate the expansion of the 'Islamic State', glorify the activities of IS/Daesh fighters and goad the coalition forces into further military conflict. He posted the video on his Facebook page on 13 December 2015 and at the time of his arrest the video had been 'viewed' 465 times, 'liked' 20 times and 'shared' at least 34 times. He re-posted the same video on 8 January 2016 and on this occasion he added the comment 'This video is strictly for education purposes only'.

In interview Hamid accepted he had posted the video. He claimed to have uploaded the video from either the BBC or Mail websites. Investigations have revealed that both media outlets had redacted the footage and showed less than 60 seconds of the video. He apologised for any offence he caused by the postings but denied his intention was to encourage, directly or indirectly, or otherwise induce, the commission, preparation or instigation of acts of terrorism.

He pleaded guilty and was sentenced to two years' Imprisonment with 10 years' Terrorism Notification Order

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R v Aras Mohammed Hamid, Shivan Hayder Azeez Zangana and Ahmed Ismail

On 13 May 2016, family members of Shivan Zangana contacted police asking for urgent help stating that he had left the family home in Sheffield with the intention of travelling to Syria to join ISIS. Enquiries revealed that he had travelled by train on that date to Birmingham where he was met by Aras Hamid.

In the weeks beforehand Aras Hamid had been in regular contact by phone with a person believed to be in either Turkey or Iraq and was seeking his assistance in making arrangements for himself, Shivan Zangana and Ahmed Ismail to travel to Syria to join ISIS as fighters. Both Shivan Zangana and Ahmed Ismail had been in contact with Aras Hamid via phone and/or social media and had expressed their desire to take part in violent jihad in Syria.

Having arrived in Birmingham and over the course of the weekend that followed all three males continued making arrangements for travel. Aras Hamid and Shivan Zangana purchased a flight for Shivan Zangana from the UK to Iraq as the first leg of his journey. Both had further telephone contact with the facilitator in Turkey/Iraq. Ahmed Ismail continued to make arrangements direct with Aras Hamid.

Ahmed Ismail then changed his mind about travelling stating that his brother was in Syria fighting for ISIS but had now been taken prisoner by ISIS and was accused of being a spy. His fate was unknown. Although he had changed his mind about travelling it was clear that he was well aware of Aras Hamid's intention to travel for terrorist purposes.

On 19 May 2016 Shivan Zangana was arrested at a mosque in Birmingham. Media devices were recovered from him and Aras Hamid, who was also present. Subsequent analysis of those media devices revealed large quantities of extremist Islamic material as well as the conversations between the parties and with the facilitator discussing the planned travel.

On 22 May 2016 Aras Hamid was arrested from the back of an articulated lorry in a layby at Dover. He was trying to leave the country surreptitiously. Ahmed Ismail was arrested the next day from his home address.

In interview all three males denied any intention of engaging in terrorist acts. Aras Hamid was charged with the following offences:

  • Assisting another in the preparation of terrorist acts, contrary to section 5(1)(b) of the Terrorism Act 2006 Possession of an identity document with improper intention, contrary to section 4(1) and (2) of the Identity Documents Act 2010
  • Preparation of terrorist acts, contrary to section 5(1)(a) of the Terrorism Act 2006
  • Azeez Zangana was charged with an offence of preparation of terrorist acts, contrary to section 5(1)(a) of the Terrorism Act 2006 and Ahmed Ismail was charged with an offence of failing to disclose information about acts of terrorism, contrary to section 38B(1)(b) and (2) of the Terrorism Act 2000

After a trial all three were convicted. Aras Hamid was sentenced to a total of 8 years' imprisonment with Terrorism Notification Requirements for 15 years. Azeez Zangana was sentenced to a total of 4 years' imprisonment with Terrorism Notification Requirements for 10 years. Ahmed Ismail was sentenced to a total of 18 months' imprisonment with Terrorism Notification Requirements for 10 years.

Last updated 10 February 2017

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