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The Counter-Terrorism Division of the Crown Prosecution Service (CPS) - cases concluded in 2015

Included in the list below is a brief summary of the cases which have been concluded in 2015. It should be noted that, as a general rule, a defendant is entitled to a one third discount on his sentence if he pleads guilty at the earliest opportunity, with a sliding scale for guilty pleas which are entered later than that. If a defendant is found guilty after trial, the Court can consider the maximum tariff to be available, subject to any personal mitigation that may be submitted on the defendant's behalf. Where a life sentence has been imposed, the tariff shown as the minimum sentence is the time to be served before parole can be considered. Some life sentences are shown as indefinite in which case it is for the Parole Board to monitor the defendant's progress towards a time when he can be considered for release.

Please note that in several of these cases reference is made to Daesh, also known as Islamic State, ISIS, ISIL and other names. The term used in each case is that which the defendants used to refer to the organisation or was used in evidence.

R v Benjamin Harris

Customs officers from Birmingham International airport identified a package containing various chemicals and components for making fireworks bound for Benjamin Harris at an address in Heathfield, East Sussex. Police later executed a search warrant at Mr Harris' address and found an extremely large and varied collection of chemicals, containers, fuses, explosives and literature on explosives, as well as a large quantity of commercial fireworks from China and Eastern Europe. In addition Mr Harris had two separate cannabis cultivation set-ups, one in his bedroom and one in the loft.

During their search of the basement of the property, police found a ball tumbler containing a quantity of fine black powder (sometimes referred to as gun powder). Alongside this, the officers found coffee bean grinders which Mr Harris had used when manufacturing black powder. This inexpert method of manufacture created a significant and entirely unpredictable risk of an explosion. In addition in Mr Harris's study police found a quantity of black explosive powder, a dismantled commercial firework, a half smoked cannabis cigarette and a bottle of lighter fluid. Police also found a USB memory stick which contained a number of electronic manuals, text books, academic and other documents relating to explosives. These included documents with the titles 'How to make Homemade High Explosives', 'IED's' and 'How to make Pyrotechnics and Fireworks.'

There was no evidence that Mr Harris had any extremist or terrorist beliefs, rather he appeared to be a hoarder who had an unhealthy interest in fireworks. Mr Harris pleaded guilty to three offences contrary to section 4 of the Explosive Substances Act 1883, an offence of production of cannabis and to breaching health and safety regulations in relation to the storage of commercial grade fireworks. He was sentenced to a total of 2 years' imprisonment suspended for 2 years with a 12 month supervision requirement. He was also made the subject of an ASBO which prevents him from possessing fireworks and from possessing or researching information about their construction.

R v Hassan Munir

A Facebook profile in the name of Hassan Munir was identified as containing a film of an improvised explosive device (IED) explosion. Further investigations revealed two other Facebook accounts linked to Mr Munir, both of which displayed material which was of an extremist nature. One account was removed by Facebook but other postings continued to appear on Mr Munir's live account including videos of IEDs and of a woman being stoned to death.

Counter Terrorism Unit officers visited Mr Munir at his home address. He was advised regarding his material posted online but did not wish to engage with the officers. Four days later Mr Munir posted to his Facebook page a link to a magazine called Dabiq 4, a 56 page publication distributed by ISIL's media arm that glorifies their actions. It included an account of a speech by the official spokesman for ISIL, Shaykh Abu Muhammad al-Adnani ash-Shami, which amounts to a direct instruction to ISIL followers to commit acts of terrorism against non-believers, especially in the West.

Mr Munir was arrested and admitted posting the link to Dabiq 4 in a location that was accessible to both the public and friends. He pleaded guilty to an offence of disseminating a terrorist publication contrary to section 2 Terrorism Act 2006. He was sentenced to 18 months' imprisonment and required to comply with notification provisions under terrorism legislation for a period of 10 years.

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R v Hana Khan

Miss Khan was found guilty after trial of two offences contrary to section 17 of the Terrorism Act 2000 in that she tried to arrange to send a male in Syria two amounts of £500, whilst having at least a reasonable suspicion he was participating in the ongoing conflict in Syria. Miss Khan was sentenced to 21 months' imprisonment for each offence, suspended for two years, with a two year supervision requirement, and notification under terrorism legislation. The judge made it clear that he was taking an exceptional course of action because of Miss Khan's personal mitigation.

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R v Majdi Shajira

On 1 April 2014 Mr Shajira was stopped under Schedule 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000 on his return from a holiday in Lanzarote. His mobile phone was seized. Based on chat on social media found on the mobile phone, it was clear that Mr Shajira had agreed to supply his brother in Syria with a pair of walking shoes. They discussed the type of shoes that would be needed, which shops sold them and Mr Shajira sent photographs of a number of shoes to his brother, showing him the options that were available.

Mr Shajira was charged with one offence contrary to section 17 of the Terrorism Act 2000, in that he had entered into an arrangement to supply shoes knowing or having reasonable cause to believe that they would be used for terrorism. Mr Shajira admitted that he had entered into an arrangement to supply shoes. He was sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment (reduced from 16 months because of his guilty plea), which was suspended for two years, with a supervision requirement and an unpaid work requirement of 200 hours, to be completed within 12 months. He was also made subject to notification under terrorism legislation for a period of 10 years.

The sentencing judge commented that an offence of this nature, whatever the property arranged for must attract a custodial sentence. It was only because of Mr Shajira's personal circumstances that prevented this being immediate.

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R v Mohammed Abdul Saboor

Mr Saboor was charged with one offence contrary to section 17 of the Terrorism Act 2000, in that he had entered into an arrangement to make available a pair of ballistic glasses which he had reasonable cause to believe would be used for acts of terrorism. Ballistic glasses are usually used by the military.

Mr Saboor entered into discussion using social media with a person he knew was in Syria and participating in the on-going conflict. Mr Saboor offered to supply a pair of ballistic glasses which would protect the wearer's eyes from shrapnel or similar and which could have various lenses fitted into them for different environments and prescription lenses. Mr Saboor sent a picture of the glasses and asked the other person for his prescription, so he could get the glasses made up for him.

Mr Saboor denied that his actions equated to entering into an arrangement but was found guilty after trial and sentenced to 21 months' imprisonment and notification under terrorism legislation.

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R v Usman Choudhary

Usman Choudhary sent a copy of a book called 'Join the Caravan' (Second Edition) to a male called Christopher Weston who was serving a sentence of imprisonment. 'Join the Caravan' is a book written by Sheikh Abdullah Azzam. It is an instruction to 'Join the Caravan' of mujahideen (jihadi fighters) and martyrs (those who die fighting jihad). The book did not reach Weston as it was opened and blocked by the prison authorities.

Mr Choudhary was arrested and police recovered a further copy of Join the Caravan (First Edition).

He pleaded guilty to one offence of disseminating a terrorist publication, contrary to section 2 of the Terrorism Act 2006, for sending the book into the prison and was sentenced to 9 months' imprisonment.

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R v Imran Mohammed Khawaja, Tahir Farooq Bhatti and Asim Ali

On 3 June 2014 the Evening Standard printed an article accompanied with the image posted by the group Rayat Al Tawheed saying that Abu Daighum Al Britani, who they described as 'a suspected senior London member of Rayat Al Tawheed had been killed'. Rayat Al Tawheed are a group of mostly British Jihadists who travelled to Syria to fight alongside DAesh (Islamic State). The image was of two masked men, one of whom was Mr Khawaja.

On the same day Mr Khawaja and Mr Bhatti were stopped entering the UK at Dover in a hire car. The subsequent investigation of media devices showed Mr Khawaja in Syria, handling machine guns, anti-aircraft weaponry and a tank. He featured in a promotional video called 'Five Star Jihad' made and distributed by Rayat Al Tawheed to encourage others to join them for Jihad. He also featured in a short video distributed on social media by Rayat al Tawheed where he is seen picking out of a bag some of the heads of those who have clearly been executed.

In messaging Mr Khawaja made it clear that his wish was to never return to the UK, yet in June 2014 he returned assisted by Mr Bhatti who had arranged for a phone to be sent to him and to fund the purchase of a 'Klash' [AK 47 rifle]. Mr Bhatti hired a car and drove to Bulgaria to collect Mr Khawaja. Their return journey was contrived to avoid detection by the authorities.

Whilst in Syria Mr Khawaja communicated extensively on social media with Mr Ali. During these discussions Mr Ali agreed to send money and other items that would assist Mr Khawaja, although he never did so.

Mr Khawaja pleaded guilty to preparation of terrorist acts contrary to section 5 of Terrorism Act 2006, in relation to his conduct before travelling and was sentenced to 12 years' imprisonment , with an extended 5 years supervision; attending a terrorist training camp, contrary to section 8 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and was sentenced to 7 years' imprisonment concurrent; receiving weapons training contrary to section 54 of the Terrorism Act 2000 and was sentenced to 7 years' imprisonment concurrent and possessing a firearm for terrorist purposes, contrary to section 57 of the Terrorism Act 2000 and was sentenced to 11 years' imprisonment concurrent. Mr Bhatti pleaded guilty to an offence of assisting an offender, contrary to section 4 of the Criminal Law Act 1967 and was sentenced to 21 months' imprisonment custody. An appeal in relation to this sentence was dismissed. Mr Ali pleaded guilty to entering a funding arrangement with Mr Khawaja contrary to section 17 of the Terrorism Act 2000 and was sentenced to 21 months' imprisonment.

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R v Satinderbir Singh, Harjinder Singh Athwal, Damanpreet Singh, Parwinder Banning and Mehul Lodia

Satinderbir Singh started a thread on his Facebook profile about the risks to Sikh girls should they go out with men from the Muslim community. Approximately 40 people participated in the Facebook conversation over a period of about six hours. During that time Satinderbir Singh, Harjinder Singh Athwal and Damanpreet Singh's postings were of such a nature as to incite religious hatred and were threatening in content.

Shortly afterward a dummy Facebook profile was created for a 15 or 16 year old Sikh girl. The intention was that when Muslim men interacted with the profile they would be challenged about their behaviour. However, it was two Sikh men that interacted with the profile. One of the men was followed, threatened, humiliated at work, and, what was clear from extensive communications data found by the police, was that a plan had been hatched to attack this man with weapons. The second victim set up a meeting with whom he thought was a girl, but was targeted and attacked by Mr Banning, Mr Damanpreet Singh and Mr Athwal who used nunchucks and an imitation firearm.

An arsenal of over 100 hand held weapons, nunchucks, knives, stun guns, knuckle dusters and batons were later found at Mr Bannings' address.

Satinderbir Singh, Harjinder Singh Athwel and Damanpreet Singh pleaded guilty to publishing material intended to stir up religious hatred, contrary to section 29C of the Public Order Act 1986. Satinderbir Singh was sentenced to 15 months' imprisonment, Harjinder Singh Athwel to 18 months' imprisonment and Damanpreet Singh to 15 months' imprisonment.

Harjinder Singh Athwel, Damanpreet Singh, Parwinder Banning and Mehul Lodia pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit actual bodily harm, contrary to section 1 of the Criminal Law Act 1977 and section 47 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1986. Harjinder Singh Athwel was sentenced to 30 months' imprisonment concurrent, Damanpreet Singh to 30 months' imprisonment concurrent, Parwinder Banning to 30 months' imprisonment and Mehul Lodia to 30 months' imprisonment.

Harjinder Singh Athwel, Damanpreet Singh and Parwinder Banning pleaded guilty to assault occasioning actual bodily harm, contrary to section 47 of the Offences Against the Person Act 1861. Harjinder Singh Athwel was sentenced to 30 months' imprisonment concurrent, Damanpreet Singh to 30 months' imprisonment concurrent and Parwinder Banning to 30 months' imprisonment concurrent.

Mr Banning also pleaded guilty to possessing an imitation firearm with intent to cause fear of violence, contrary to section 16A of Firearms Act 1968 and received 18 months' imprisonment consecutive, and importing offensive weapons for which he received a further 3 years and 6 months, making his total sentence one of 7 years' imprisonment.

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R v Brustholm Ziamani

During a search of Mr Ziamani's house a number of pieces of paper that appeared to form a single letter were recovered from a pair of jeans belonging to him. The letter was handwritten and of an extremist nature. One part detailed that due to the situation in Syria and Iraq and because the author did not have the means to get to these countries, he would wage war against the British Government instead. Other parts of the letter glorified the murder of Fusilier Lee Rigby and expressed that "we" should "do a 9/11, a 7/7 and a Woolwich all in one day". He said that the letters were written by him because he was upset with the way Muslims are treated in the world. He stated that he had no intention of carrying out any attacks within the UK, although he said he had aspirations to travel to Iraq or Syria and fight alongside ISIS.

An assessment of his mobile phone yielded a number of contacts, images, videos and his internet browsing history. He visited sites relating to Army Cadets in Camberwell and Blackheath/Lewisham. He visited the site of London Irish Rifles and then appeared to have accessed the cadet page from the home page, via a link on that page. He researched a number of issues in relation to 'Jannah' (Paradise) how to get there, who he will meet there, what it's like there and whether men can have intercourse with alhoor aliyn (angels/virgins). One post from Mr Ziamani's a Facebook account dated 12 June 2014 stated: "Why are we acting like Lee Rigby's death was the worse death ever he just got run over n stabbed left right centre. I bet if n Englishman did it they would say nothing or make a big deal over it but 2 Muslim brothers run over dis kuffar n now making it a big deal".

Following analysis of Mr Ziamani's electronic devices and discovery of the above mentioned searches and posts he was arrested was found to be in possession of a flag, hammer and a knife. Officers took a statement from his ex-girlfriend who he had visited early that day. She told police he had he showed her a large hammer and a twelve-inch knife and told her that he was planning a terrorist attack and he would 'kill soldiers'.

He was charged with an offence contrary to Section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006. Following charge he was remanded to HMP Wandsworth. Whilst in prison he told a guard "My ideology will not be changed by anyone." When asked why he was in prison, he said: "I was on my way to kill a British Soldier at an army barracks. I was going to behead the soldier and hold his head in the air so my friend could take a photograph."

Mr Ziamani was convicted after trial and was sentenced to an extended sentence of 27 years' imprisonment which comprised of 22 years custody and a licence extension of 5 years. He appealed his sentence and the Court of Appeal allowed his appeal to the extent that that the extended sentence of 27 years' imprisonment was reduced to 24 years' imprisonment made up of a custodial term of 19 years and an extension of 5 years.

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R v Zakariya Ashiq

Zakariya Ashiq travelled on a coach from London's Victoria Station through Europe to Bulgaria and then to Jordan. He was planning to go on to Syria to fight with Islamic State (IS) but was unsuccessful in getting to Syria. He returned from Jordan to the United Kingdom and was arrested.

Interrogation of a number of electronic devices belonging to Mr Ashiq showed that he had been engaging in what are known as Chat Roulette conversations during which he made a number of comments showing his admiration for Islamic State and its values. He had also searched on the internet by using words such as Dabiq 1 and Dabiq 2, which are publications by the media arm of IS containing articles which glorify terrorism. Searches were also made for 'Isis beheading journalist' and for 'Woolwich attack' and for the speeches of Anwar Al Awlaki Azzam. He communicated with friends already in Syria using the social media platform WhatsApp. In those WhatsApp conversations he spoke of his urge to get into Syria and to join IS.

Mr Ashiq was convicted after trial of two offences contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and was sentenced to 6 years' imprisonment to run concurrently on each count.

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R v Alaa Esayed

Ms Esayed came to the attention of the police as a result of the nature and volume of material she was posting on her Twitter and Instagram accounts. Examination of the accounts revealed a large number of messages posted (on occasion in excess of 50 a day) which indicated a support for IS and their actions in Syria and Iraq. A review of the messages revealed that she was in fact encouraging others to engage in such acts and asking them to question why they had 'stayed behind' from Jihad. Ms Esayad also posted poems encouraging mothers to raise their sons in preparation for engaging in Jihad.

She pleaded guilty to an offence contrary to section 1 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and an offence contrary to section 2 of the Terrorism Act 2006. She was sentenced to 3 years' and 6 months' imprisonment for each offence to run concurrently. She was also made subject to a 10 year notification requirement under terrorism legislation.

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R v Ednane Mahmood

Mr Mahmood was reported missing on the morning of 18 September 2014. He left a letter for his family which stated that he intended to engage in fighting 'in the name of the almighty Allah'. An extract from the letter is as follows:

'Today I have left comfort and luxioury in order to strive, struggle and fight in the cause of the almighty. Allah has said to us "and what is wrong with you that you fight not in the cause of Allah, and for those weak ill treated and oppressed among men, women and children", therefore I have gone to fight in the name of Allah. Today the Khilafah has been established, a state for Muslims, where we can have honour and our rights as muslims while living their [sic]'

It was established that Mr Mahmood had travelled to Turkey with the intention on travelling on to Syria. Whilst in Turkey Mr Mahmood used his twitter account to send messages to people believed to be fighting in Syria stating 'need help. Urgent'.

Mr Mahmood was unable to enter Syria and following a Twitter exchange with members of his family, he returned to the UK on 21 September 2014.

Examination of Mr Mahmood's electronic devices showed that propaganda from ISIS had been viewed as well as beheading videos. In addition a number of searches had been undertaken including the following:

  • Facebook page titled 'Islamic state overlap and Sham'
  • Google searches for Bulgaria and Turkey
  • Paltalk lectures form Anjem Choudhury
  • British man beheaded
  • ISIS in Syria
  • ISIS today
  • ISIS Caliphate
  • Jihad
  • Hijra fi sabiliiah (call to Syria to fight for Allah)
  • Searches for combat gear on islamica online stores (combat vests, flags and balaclavas).
In addition to the searches Mr Mahmood sent a friend links to videos and extremist propaganda, wi

th one link taking the recipient to a video that contained footage of a mass execution.

Mr Mahmood was charged in April 2015 with offences contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 (preparation of terrorist acts) and section 2 of the Terrorism Act 2006 (dissemination of terrorist material). He was convicted after trial in November 2015 and sentenced on 11 December 2015 to four years' imprisonment for the offence contrary to section 5 and six months' imprisonment for each of the two offences contrary to section 2 of the Terrorism Act 2006. In addition Mr Mahmood will be subject to notification requirements upon his release from prison for a period of ten years.

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R v Trevor Mulindwa

Trevor Mulindwa, was arrested with others in July 2012 for conspiracy to supply class A drugs. Shortly thereafter his mental health deteriorated and, as a result, he was sectioned under section 2 of the Mental Health Act and admitted to Springfield Hospital on 16 May 2013. Following treatment he was discharged on 3 June 2013.

Prior to being sentenced to 27 months' imprisonment on 27 August 2013, Mr Mulwinda changed his appearance and told his family he had converted to the Islamic faith. Whilst detained at HMP YOI Littlehey he began to demonstrate a significant interest in Islamic extremism and in October 2013, during a conversation with a prison officer, he said he wanted "to be trained as a suicide bomber" and that white people and non-believers are people that he wants to kill.

On 16 October 2013 he was transferred to Springfield Hospital, under sections 47/49 Mental Health Act. He was placed in a secure ward in which there was a computer to which patients had access. He continued to demonstrate his interest in Islamic extremism and effectively became self- radicalised during this period, demonstrating a particular interest in Al Shabaab, which is a proscribed terrorist organisation. Although Mr Mulindwa was advised not to look on banned websites before using the computer, he continued to do so. He was observed to pay particular attention and interest in news broadcasts involving ISIS and other similar items.

He was later moved to a less secure ward, but his interest in extremism continued. He told another patient he would be "going to war soon".

He was released from hospital and within a few weeks was reported missing by his mother. The following day, 15 September 2014, he purchased an airline ticket for a flight to Mogadishu, Somalia via Dubai. On 17 September 2014 he was identified and detained in the Prayer Room at London Heathrow Airport. He was arrested in relation to breach of licence conditions.

Counter Terrorism Officers searched his property and recovered flight tickets to Mogadishu via Bahrain and Dubai. The first outward bound flight was shown from Heathrow to Bahrain leaving on 19 September 2014. He was also in possession of a Blackberry Mobile Telephone and a Passport.

Following his arrest and cancellation of licence he was remanded back into prison and the circumstances of his arrest and his aspirations to fight overseas for extremist purposes were further investigated by officers from the Metropolitan Police Counter Terrorism Command. Various media storage devices were interrogated. The phone recovered on arrest revealed a history of visits to six websites, all with a terrorist theme, mainly concerning Al Shabaab.

On 15 December 2014 Mr Mulindwa was produced from HMP YOI ISIS and was arrested on suspicion of preparing for an act of terrorism contrary to Section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and interviewed.

He said he had been at boarding school in Somalia for three years and was returning to see his family, in particular, his cousin Joseph, although he was not sure whether Joseph was in Somalia or Uganda. He denied asking any staff whilst he was in custody about how to become a suicide bomber and denied looking at Al Qaeda websites on the internet.

Following a trial he was convicted of an offence contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and sentenced to 6 years' imprisonment with a notification period of 15 years.

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R v Mark Colborne

Mr Colborne was charged with and convicted after trial of an offence contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006. His step brother went to the police station to inform the police that he had discovered a large quantity of chemicals in Mr Colborne's bedroom. The police went to his address and found chemicals that were in the process of being made into cyanide. In addition, the police found a book that contained recipes to make lethal poisons. They seized his computer, which was interrogated and found to contain numerous searches of how to make poisons. Mr Colborne had also transcribed recipes from other books of how to make incendiary devices, such as pipe bombs. A smart phone was retrieved and found to contain videos which were predominantly killing by shooting, throat cutting, stabbing, axe attack and attack with a chainsaw. Mr Colborne had also searched for atomiser sprays and substances that would kill on contact with human skin. He was sentenced to a Hospital Order.

R v Kazi Islam

Mr Islam was charged was charged with and convicted after trial of an offence contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006. The police searched his address and seized a number of electronic devices. Interrogation of the devices revealed that Mr Islam had accessed websites on how to make a semtex bomb and various websites which had radical publications such as Inspire and 44 Ways to Commit Jihad. His Blackberry phone was interrogated and revealed that he had attempted to manipulate another person through messaging to purchase chemicals in order that a bomb could be manufactured and targeted on British soldiers. He was sentenced to 8 years' imprisonment.

R v Mustafa Abdullah

Mr Abdullah was convicted of 13 offences contrary to section 58 of the Terrorism Act 2000. He had returned from Syria via Sweden and was stopped by police at the airport and his smart phone was seized. Interrogation of the phone revealed that he had, whilst in Sweden, systematically deleted a number of instructional videos regarding combat fighting, use and maintenance of firearms such "Close range gun fighting", "How to be effective in combat arena with automatic pistols" and "Glock Pistol Armourers". In addition, there was a considerable amount of audio and video material from other devices that had been seized at his home address which demonstrated that he was radicalised. He was sentenced to 4.5 years' imprisonment.

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R v Mohammed Rehman and Sana Ahmed Khan

Mohammed Rehman and Sana Khan were husband and wife and were charged with offences contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006. Mr Rehman was also charged with offences contrary to section 57 of the Terrorism Act 2000. Both had become radicalised and were supporters of ISIS. They had embarked on a plan to purchase a considerable amount of chemicals with a view to making a series of explosives which could either be remotely detonated or used for a terrorist attack. Sana Khan financed this and Mohammed Rehman had sourced and purchased the chemicals. He then tested the explosives and tweeted about them and his radicalised view of Islam on twitter. He sent a video to his wife of a test explosion he had carried out in his back garden. He sought advice on twitter whether to carry out the attack at a Westfield Shopping Centre or the London Underground. The police found at his address substantial quantities of chemical explosives including primary and secondary detonators and relevant paraphernalia. Expert evidence at trial revealed that the chemical explosives that had been recovered were in the final stages of being deployed. Both were convicted and both were sentenced to life imprisonment. Sana Khan appealed her sentence and the Court of Appeal allowed her appeal only to the extent that the minimum term of the sentence of life imprisonment is reduced from 25 to 23 years. (R v Kahar and others 2016 EWCA Crim. 568.)

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R v Atiq Ahmed

On 9 March 2015 police were called to Atiq Ahmed's address by his relatives who were concerned about his behaviour. When officers arrived he said, "Now you are here I will raise the black banner. The ISIS flag will fly and I won't let you leave." Family members disclosed that he was constantly viewing extremist material on the internet.

Mr Ahmed was initially arrested for breach of the peace; however a subsequent examination of his mobile phone and laptop identified electronic documents, videos and social media postings related to ISIL and to terrorism. These included a publication entitled "Hijrah to the Islamic State", a 50 page e-book which covered various topic areas of potential use to those wishing to travel to join ISIL. Additional evidence showed that Mr Ahmed and sent links to pro-ISIL videos to other individuals using his Google+ social media account.

Mr Ahmed was then arrested on suspicion committing terrorist offences related to the material found on his devices. In interview he stated that the material was only on his devices to assist him in his understanding of what was going on in Syria. The evidence, including his comments on social media, suggested otherwise.

He was charged with two offences of disseminating a terrorist publication contrary to section 2 Terrorism Act 2006. On 6 August 2015, he pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 30 months' imprisonment and was required to comply with the Terrorism notification provisions for a period of 10 years.

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R v Malcolm Hodges

Between December 2014 and March 2015 Mr Hodges sent a letter, via e-mail, to a number of business addresses. The letter praised the actions of Islamic extremists and encouraged the reader to engage in similar activity. It included specific advice as to how a terrorist attack could be effectively conducted in the UK and suggested a number of specific targets. Some of those targeted were persons against whom Mr Hodges held some animosity.

He was arrested and police seized various electronic devices from his property which contained drafts of similar letters, evidence of internet searches relating to Islamic extremism and IT security and numerous copies of "Inspire" magazine, which is published by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.

Mr Hodges was charged with one offence of encouraging terrorism contrary to section 1 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and one offence of possession of a document of a kind likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism contrary to section 58 of the Terrorism Act 2000.

He pleaded guilty and on 20 November 2015 he was sentenced to three years' imprisonment for the offence contrary to section 1 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and 2 years' imprisonment concurrent in relation to the offence contrary to section 58 of the Terrorism Act 2000.The Judge noted that Mr Hodges was reckless as to whether or not a person reading the letter would be encouraged to engage in an act of terrorism but that the offence was aggravated by the fact that he had a previous conviction for the same conduct in 2008 when a similar letter was sent to a number of mosques.

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R v X

X is a 14 year old youth (and therefore cannot be named) who pleaded guilty to an offence of inciting terrorism overseas contrary to section 59 of the Terrorism Act 2000. From the bedroom of his parents' suburban home, X plotted with an Australian jihadist to commit an attack upon an Anzac Day Parade in Melbourne. Their plot was developed over the Internet and the intention was that police officers would be murdered by beheading. It is clear that the purpose of this proposed attack was to promote the ideology and agenda of ISIS and that X had been radicalised by ISIS propaganda that he had accessed over the Internet. His contact with his Australian collaborator was instigated by a well-known ISIS recruiter and propagandist named Abu Khaled al-Cambodi, himself an Australian, who has promoted the idea of terrorist attacks in his homeland. The screensaver of X's mobile phone was the black flag associated with ISIS. The handset also contained photographs of beheadings and ISIS propaganda including three editions of an ISIS magazine, one of which contained excerpts from a speech by an ISIS spokesman calling for lone wolf attacks in home countries. There is no doubt that there was a determination on the part of X and his Australian collaborator that the plot should be carried through and the contact between the two included frequent references to the production of a martyrdom video for al-Cambodi which, no doubt, he intended to use for propaganda purposes. Fortunately the authorities here and in Australia intervened and a plot that would in all probability have come into effect and resulted in murders was thwarted. X was found to be 'dangerous' and was therefore sentenced to detention for life with a minimum term of six years.

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R v Y

Y is a 16 year old girl (and therefore cannot be named) who pleaded guilty to two offences of possessing information of a kind likely to be useful to a terrorist contrary to section 58 of the Terrorism Act 2000. During the course of the investigation relating to X it was established that X had communicated over the Internet with Y. The conversations they had centred around their shared views on travel to Syria and they developed a romantic relationship. As a result of these communications being found Y was arrested and her family home was searched. Several items were seized including her Blackberry mobile phone and a sketch pad found in her room. The phone contained several extremist pro-ISIS items including instructions for producing a timed circuit, an article entitled 'A bomb in the kitchen of your mom', ISIS Dabiq publications and images of a deceased child, an execution, people about to be beheaded, ISIS symbols and flags, radical figures, guns, knives and grenades. Also found on the Blackberry phone was 'The Anarchy cookbook' which includes recipes and instructions to make a wide range of explosives and would therefore be useful to a terrorist. The sketch pad also contained a recipe for explosives which would be useful to a terrorist. Y was sentenced to a 12 month Intensive Referral Order.

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R v Joshua Bonehill-Paine

Following a contested trial Joshua Bonehill-Paine was convicted of an offence of publishing written material intending to stir up racial hatred, contrary to section 19 of the Public Order Act 1986. This related to postings on his website (which was accessible to the public), the content of which was extremely offensive. The first image had a black background with an image of the entrance to Auschwitz Concentration Camp at the base with grass to the rear of the entrance. A head intended to represent a stereotype of a Jewish man could be seen through the grass behind the building. To the side of the image is a bottle of "Roundup" Weed Killer. On the black background are the words "Liberate Golders Green an anti-Jewification event. We've become complacent and allowed for weeds to grow in the cracks of London. It's Time to clear them out with Round-Up and liberate Golders Green for the future generations of white People. Join us on July 4th for what promised to be an absolute gas!" The second image was a bright yellow poster stating "Hey kids... We're going to Golders Green on July 4th for a party Join us for what promises to be an absolute gas!" with a 'smiley' face and #Summerofhate written below. The image on the poster was plainly intended to portray Adolf Hitler in a jokey fashion. The posts were both insulting and grossly offensive to the Jewish community. The reference to an "anti-Jewification event", "summerofhate" and the injunction to "clear them out" were clearly intended to stir up racial hatred. Bonehill-Paine invited those who visited the site to "print them, spread them and incite racial inspiration throughout the UK". The term 'inspiration' was a thinly disguised reference to 'hatred' in the circumstances. Bonehill-Paine was sentenced to a term of imprisonment of 3 years and 4 months; he is now seeking leave to appeal this sentence.

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R v Abdul Miah

Abdul Miah was charged with two offences of disseminating terrorist publications, contrary to section 2 of the Terrorism Act 2006. He is an ISIS follower who used the internet to disseminate films that encouraged terrorism through violence including martyrdom. The films he disseminated via his Twitter account were 'Birds of Paradise' and 'Emotional Breathtaking Recitation'. 'Birds of Paradise' is an Islamic nasheed with English subtitles which contains excerpts of what appear to be ISIS fighters firing guns, riding horses and waving the black flag associated with ISIS; its lyrics promote death, martyrdom and violence. 'Emotional Breathtaking Recitation' is an Islamic nasheed with English subtitles. It includes text relating to fighting in the cause of Allah, fighting the oppressors, disbelievers and allies of Satan; the context of the words alongside the images are supportive of and encouraging violent jihad. Following a trial Miah was convicted sentenced to a term of imprisonment of 3 years and 6 months; he is now seeking leave to appeal this sentence.

R v Ahmed Bham

On 20 April 2014 Mr Bham was lawfully asked questions by police officers at Terminal 3 at London Heathrow, pursuant to the powers set out in Schedule 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000. He repeatedly failed to answer those questions. His refusal and the manner of his refusal was wilful and as a result he committed a criminal offence contrary to schedule 7 of the Terrorism Act 2000. He was aware of his trial date but failed to attend court. It was found that he had voluntarily absented himself so the trial proceeded in his absence. He was convicted and a warrant not backed for bail was issued.

R v Adeel Amjad

On 5 November 2013 Mr Amjad's home was searched. A notebook was found in which contained handwritten notes entitled 'Commander of the Mujahide', which listed the qualities needed to be a Mujahide, such as never humbling oneself in front of an enemy. On the second half of the page were further handwritten notes entitled 'Mujahid Minimum Training', followed by a training plan to enable someone to get fit. There were other handwritten notes on the following pages that suggested support for violent jihad. An expert compared the notes to other documents and concluded there was strong evidence that the notes had been written by Mr Amjad.

Mr Amjad was charged with one offence of possessing a document containing information of a kind likely to be useful to a person committing or preparing an act of terrorism contrary to section 58 of the Terrorism Act 2000. He was found guilty after trial, having argued that he had made the notes as part of a training programme, when discussing getting fit with a friend at gym. On 11 December 2015 at Manchester Crown Court Mr Amjad was sentenced to 12 months' imprisonment, suspended for 2 years, and a notification period of ten years. Mr Amjad was directed to pay the victim surcharge, and £2000 towards prosecution costs.

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R v Yahya Rashid

In September 2014 Mr Rashid obtained a place at Middlesex University to study for a degree in engineering, using a forged qualification certificate. As a result of the university place, Mr Rashid was able to obtain student loans and grants to the sum of approximately £6000. Mr Rashid was charged with one offence contrary to section 2 of the Fraud Act 2006, to which he pleaded guilty.

In December 2014 Mr Rashid made a number of postings on-line that suggested support for the so called Islamic State and an intention to join it.

On 25 February 2015 Mr Rashid went to an internet café with three friends and bought tickets for himself, the three friends and the wife of one of the friends to travel from Gatwick to Marrakesh the next day. Mr Rashid used some of his student loan money to pay for the flight tickets.

The group travelled to Marrakesh. They were initially reported missing by their families but the group persuaded their families that they were on holiday. All of the group posted photographs of themselves participating in tourist activities. The group did not return to the UK as anticipated, and were then treated as missing persons. It was established that they had bought visas to enter Turkey.

Mr Rashid's family noticed that on his Facebook account Mr Rashid had posted: 'I'd rather give my life of comfort to a life of severe trials so I may achieve a share of the hereafter seriously', and that he had changed his Facebook name to Muhammad Al Haznawi.

From 20 March 2015 Mr Rashid entered into Facebook direct messaging with his father and said he would be home soon. On 23 March 2015 he informed his father he was in Turkey and was advised to go to the British Embassy. Mr Rashid went to the British Embassy, but when he left he was arrested by the Turkish authorities.

On 31 March 2015 Mr Rashid was put on a flight to return him to the UK and arrived at Luton Airport on 31 March 2015 where he was arrested.

Mr Rashid was interviewed by the police and confirmed that that the group had discussed the Islamic State (IS). He and another member of the group were doubtful about going to Syria and joining IS, and he explained that the group had watched videos to '...pump themselves up...' to the idea of IS. He confirmed that he had bought the flight tickets, but that it was a collective idea. He said that the group had stayed in Marrakesh doing tourist activities, they then flew to Casablanca and then to Istanbul in Turkey. Another member of the group then contacted someone to make arrangements to get them into Syria. He said that the group stayed in a safe house on the Turkey/Syrian border for a few days during which time he decided to return to the UK and left the group. He said that he had sold his mobile phone and new laptop in Morocco so that his movements could not be tracked.

Mr Rashid was found guilty after trial of one count of engaging in conduct in preparation for giving effect to his intention of committing acts of terrorism and one count of engaging in conduct in preparation for giving effect to his intention of assisting another to commit acts of terrorism contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006. He was sentenced to five years' imprisonment on each count to run concurrently, and a notification period of 10 years. He was sentenced to four months' imprisonment for the fraud offence to run concurrently.

He applied for leave to appeal this sentence but this was dismissed. (R v Kahar and others. 2016 EWCA Crim. 568)

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R v Mustakim Jaman and Tuhin Shahensha

Mr Jaman and Mr Shahensha are the brothers of Ifthekar Jaman, who died in December 2013 fighting in the ongoing conflict in Syria. Mr Jaman and Mr Shahensha shared a radical belief in violent jihad, a belief that was sustained over an 18 month period leading up to their arrests in October 2014. They were at the heart of a tightly-knit group of like-minded men originally from the Portsmouth area, men who shared the same extremist ideological beliefs and who supported the use of serious violence in order to create an Islamic state. Some of the group travelled to Syria and fought there. Some were killed. Although the Mr Jaman and Mr Shahensha never travelled to Syria themselves, they assisted others to travel there and Mr Shahensha made preparations himself to travel in order to fight.

Mobile phone and laptops seized from their home addresses contained material that demonstrated that they supported violent jihad, and were assisting others to participate in the ongoing conflict in Syria. The assistance they provided included driving friends to a train station whom they knew were on their way to Syria to participate in violent jihad and providing advice and guidance to others on how to use various social media applications. The advice included advising on how to get across the Turkish border into Syria, arranging for a "tazkiya" (a reference to help the person enter Syria and join one of the groups participating in the fighting) and providing advice about which militia group join.

Both Mr Jaman and Mr Shahensha provided their bank account details to enable money to be transferred into them to be used for' jihadi' purposes.

Mr Shahensha made various purchases on the internet of equipment and clothing that he would need if he travelled to Syria. He also obtained information about how to travel into Syria. He did this with the intention of committing acts of terrorism or engaging in conduct to give effect to that intention.

Mr Jaman was found guilty after trial of one count of engaging in conduct in preparation for giving effect to his intention of assisting another to commit acts of terrorism contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006 and sentenced to six years' imprisonment. Mr Shahensha was found guilty after trial of engaging in conduct in preparation for giving effect to his intention of committing acts of terrorism and one count of engaging in conduct in preparation for giving effect to his intention of assisting another to commit acts of terrorism contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006. He was sentenced to six years' imprisonment on each count to run concurrently. Both received a notification order of 15 years.

Whilst remanded in custody and waiting trial, Mr Jaman was found in possession of a mobile phone, which is prohibited item in a prison. He pleaded guilty to this offence and was sentenced to two months' imprisonment to run concurrently.

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R v Mohammed Kahar

Mr Kahar was active on social media posting material of an extremist nature. He came to the attention of the police in October 2014. Between October 2014 and March 2015, various Facebook profiles operated by Kahar posted in excess of 1000 times. These posts contained images, videos, quotes and links covering a wide range of extremist material. The material posted showed a pronounced interest in violent and Islamic extremism. Kahar had posted and shared material which glorified and encouraged acts of terrorism on social media.

On 4 March 2015 Kahar was arrested at his home address for disseminating terrorist publications. He was interviewed and bailed pending a full analysis of his media devices. Examination of his electronic devices revealed a significant interest in supporting and promoting the Islamic State (IS) and also his desire to travel to Syria to join IS to engage in fighting. He contacted individuals online, including those engaged with IS in Syria, to seek their advice and guidance on crossing the Turkish border into Syria.

Kahar used several online communication platforms/applications, such as Facebook accounts, KIK messenger, WhatsApp, just to name a few. He disseminated significant IS related material online. The material directly or indirectly glorified terrorist related activities.

Furthermore, Kahar had on several occasions posted his support for IS and encouraged others to do the same.

A document titled 'The Explosive Course' was found on a mobile device attributed to him. The document was assessed by the Forensic Explosive Laboratory. They concluded that the document contained sufficient information to make a viable explosive device.

Kahar also entered into an arrangement whereby he intended to make money available to another person who was also intending to travel to Syria to join IS.

He was convicted on 13 November 2015 at Newcastle Crown Court. The sentence in total was 5 years' imprisonment as follows:

Count Offence Sentence Maximum
1 Preparation 12 March 2014 to 24 February 2015 5 years Life
2 Funding 2–5 June 2014 12 months concurrent 5 years
3 Inviting Support (Mashy) 17 November 2013-1 August 2014 3 years 6 months concurrent 10 years
4 Inviting Support (Dhula Bai Oldham) 5–12 August 2014 3 years 6 months concurrent 10 years
5 Inviting Support (Ruhel) 28 January 2015 3 years 6 months concurrent 10 years
7 Dissemination (Dabiq 5 Magazine on Facebook) 24 November 2014 3 years 6 months concurrent 7 years
8 Dissemination ("What are you Waiting for?" video on Facebook) 18 to 27 November 2014 3 years 6 months concurrent 7 years
9 Dissemination ("ISIS Missbraucht Kinder" video on Facebook) 29 December 2014 3 years 6 months concurrent 7 years
10 Dissemination ("Mensurrah Inshallah" video on Facebook) 21 January 2015 3 years 6 months concurrent 7 years
11 Dissemination ("Book of Jihad", "Message to the Mujahidin in the Month of Ramadan", "Indeed your Lord is ever Watchful" and "This is the Promise of Allah") by email on 22 December 2014 3 years 6 months concurrent 7 years

This total sentence was considered unduly lenient and was referred by the Attorney General to the Court of Appeal. The judgment in R v Mohammed Kahar and others [2016] EWCA Crim 568 was handed down on 17 May 2016 and Mr Kahar's sentence was increased to a total period of 8 years. Furthermore the Lord Chief Justice considered guidance on the correct approach and level for sentences in offences contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006.

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R v Abdulraouf Eshati

On Sunday 30 November 2014 a HGV lorry was stopped by armed police at the Port of Dover in the area where vehicles are held prior to boarding ferries to France. Police found 20 persons in the back of the lorry, one of whom was Mr Eshati, a 29 year old Libyan national, who, whilst applying for asylum in the UK, was a part time Imam.

Mr Eshati was later interviewed under the provisions of Schedule 7 Terrorism Act 2000 and the contents of his phone were examined. Police found an image of what appeared to be a receipt from an arms supplier in Switzerland documenting the sale and delivery of various calibre of ammunition in 7.62mm (rifle), 14.4mm (heavy machine gun) and 23mm (Anti-Aircraft). The delivery destination for these items was Tobruk in Libya and the amount paid in full was $28,500,000. A second document, a letter arranging the hiring of an Ilyushin 74 cargo plane, was also found. An image was found showing an unknown male dressed in black flanked by AK 47s, the flag appears to be that of Ansar Al Sharia (a Libyan Islamist Militia group). There were also a number of images of fighters in militia 'uniform' that were assessed as belonging to proscribed organisations and images of a solider having his throat cut whilst being held down.

It became apparent from an examination of communications that Mr Eshati had been sent the letter and the receipt by an old friend from Libya with a view to him assisting in translating them (which he did using Google translate). It became clear that this friend was involved in an attempt to purchase the ammunition from an illegal arms dealer in Italy for provision to the Zintan Militia in Libya. Although Mr Eshati was not involved directly in the arms dealing it was clear that these documents would have been of use to a person committing an act of terrorism and he was charged with an offence contrary to s58 Terrorism Act 2000.

Mr Eshati had entered the UK from Libya on 29 April 2012 and applied for asylum. Having been refused leave he appealed. Material was also found on his phone which showed that some of the documents he provided to the Immigration Appeals Tribunal were forgeries, including a fake arrest warrant purportedly relating to his family members in Libya. Mr Eshati was therefore also charged in relation to providing false documents to an Immigration Tribunal.

He pleaded guilty on the day of trial to both charges and was sentenced to 4.5 years' imprisonment for possessing the documents and 18 months consecutive for the immigration offence. He appealed this sentence and this was considered and dismissed in the conjoined appeal R v Mohammed Kahar and others [2016] EWCA Crim 568.

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R v Trevor Brooks and Simon Keeler

Mr Brooks and Mr Keeler, by virtue of their previous convictions for terrorism offences, were both subject to the notification requirements set out in Part 4 of the Counter-Terrorism Act 2008. In November 2015 they were detained at the Hungary/Romania border by border police. Neither Mr Brooks nor Mr Keeler had notified the authorities of their intention to leave the UK as required by the notification regime. European Arrest Warrants were issued and both men were extradited back to the UK where they were prosecuted for failing to comply with their notification requirements. They each entered a guilty plea and each received a sentence of 2 years' imprisonment.

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R v Silhan Ozcelik

Miss Ozcelik was charged with an offence contrary to section 5 of the Terrorism Act 2006. She had left the UK to join a proscribed organisation, the PKK, and become a militant with that group. Miss Ozcelik was convicted after trial and received a custodial sentence of 21 months. She appealed both conviction and sentence. This was considered and dismissed in the conjoined appeal R v Mohammed Kahar and others [2016] EWCA Crim 568.

Last updated: 19 July 2016

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