CPS Conditional Cautioning Data by Quarter
Conditional Cautions are a statutory disposal introduced for adults by the Criminal Justice Act 2003 and for youths by the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and are operated under Statutory Codes of Practice.
The Codes of Practice requires the Director of Public Prosecutions to issue supporting guidance in respect of both adult and youths.
Offences suitable for Conditional Cautioning are set out in the DPP's Guidance for adult and youth offenders.
Conditional Cautions are one of a range of out-of-court disposals and provide an effective, swift and speedy resolution in appropriate cases.
A Conditional Caution is issued if the offender admits the offence and accepts the condition(s). If the conditions are complied with or completed within the timescales determined, the case is finalised and there is no prosecution. If, however, the conditions are not complied with, a prosecution may follow.
Conditional Conditions can be:
- Reparative (such as writing a letter of apology; repairing damage; paying compensation or undertaking unpaid work in the community, if public or the wider community are the victim; mediation between the offender and the victim);
- Rehabilitative (attendance at drug or alcohol awareness session in an effort to halt the causes of the offending behaviour);
- Restrictive (not to approach a particular area or person) if the restriction supports reparation or rehabilitation.
- Punitive (such as a financial penalty); or
- Foreign Offender Conditions (for certain adult foreign offenders who do not have permission to be in the UK. These conditions have the object of removing an adult foreign offender from the UK and ensuring they do not return for a period of time.)
A Conditional Caution differs from a simple caution as there are certain conditions that must be complied with in order to avoid prosecution for the offence committed.
Changes to Conditional Cautioning following the introduction of The Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders (LASPO) Act 2012
Prior to 8 April 2013 a Crown Prosecutor decided whether a Conditional Caution was an appropriate disposal for an offender aged 18 or over following a consultation with the police.
The Legal Aid, Sentencing and Punishment of Offenders (LASPO) Act 2012 introduced changes to the Conditional Caution scheme. These came into effect on 8th April 2013 and include;
- The removal of the requirement for a Prosecutor to authorise adult and youth Conditional Cautions;
- The introduction of the adult foreign offender conditions.
- The introduction of the Youth Conditional Caution (YCC)for 10-17 year olds throughout England and Wales.
Under these arrangements, the police can now issue a Conditional Caution for any offence, excluding Indictable Only Offences and offences involving hate crime and domestic violence.
The decision to issue a Conditional Caution for any Indictable Only offence must be taken by the CPS and only in exceptional circumstances. These are set out in the DPP's Guidance. The other exception is a controlled pilot that that commenced in 2012 in part of the Hampshire police force area to assess the impact of issuing an adult Conditional Caution for adult domestic violence offences. Such cases must be referred to the CPS for decision.
The number of Conditional Cautions issued and recorded by the CPS will therefore decrease. The CPS will only record those cases noted above which must be referred to the CPS to issue a Conditional Caution; those cases where, following a request for Charging advice, the CPS determined that the case was more suitable to be dealt with by way of a Conditional Caution; and those cases where the police have charged a suspect but a prosecutor on review following charge determines that it is more appropriate to proceed by way of a Conditional Caution.
In 2009 the DPP published 'The Public Prosecution Service - Setting the Standard' in which he called for a coherent and consistent, transparent, monitored legislative system for the use of all out-of-court disposals.
The CPS is committed to ensuring that its involvement in the diversion process is transparent; therefore the information available here provides data from the CPS case management system about the Conditional Cautions administered.
Conditional Cautions can offer a swift and speedier resolution, in appropriate cases, than the full judicial process. They can help address the needs of the wider community by highlighting the effects of the offending behaviour on that community, including:
- Increased community participation in the delivery of local justice; and
- Offenders gain access to treatment for alcohol and drug interventions more speedily.
A Conditional Caution can be refused by an offender, who can take the option of being prosecuted in court if they prefer so. The disposal does not, therefore, deny an offender the right to a court hearing. It does provide an opportunity, where the public interest test is met, to divert suitable offenders from the court process. If an offender accepts a Conditional Caution but then does not complete the conditions, they can be prosecuted for the original offence.
Information on the Quarterly Report
The data published quarterly includes:
- The number of Conditional Cautions administered by Area.
- Type of Conditions attached to Cautions. This allows the user to view the type of conditions used. Each Conditional Caution administered may have more than one condition attached to it; as a result of this the number of conditions will not be equal to the number of Conditional Cautions administered.
- The number of Conditional Cautions administered by offence. This shows those offences for which a Conditional Caution has been administered for the relevant quarter.
- Outcome of CPS decision-making following non-compliance. This section gives information regarding the actions taken by the CPS in the event that the offender does not comply with the terms of the Conditional Caution.
- Number of Conditional Cautions broken down by Gender and Area.
Conditional Caution - "Conditional Caution" means a caution which is given in respect of an offence committed by the offender and which has conditions attached to it with which the offender must comply (Criminal Justice Act 2003 s. 22(2)).
Type of Conditional Cautions available:
- This condition is intended to rehabilitate the defendant. For example, attendance at drug or alcohol awareness sessions in an effort to halt the causes of the offending behaviour.
- Restorative Justice - a condition intending to restore justice to the victim and the community.
- Compensation - a condition to pay a specific amount directly to the victim to compensate them for the crime.
- Letter of Apology - a letter of apology written by the defendant, which will be sent to the victim.
- Other reparative - other conditions imposed on the offender to help repair the harm that has arisen from the crime.
- Restrictive - this condition will be imposed to restrict the offender, for example prohibiting him from entering a certain area, as it is a condition that supports rehabilitation.
Punitive, Youth and Foreign Offender Conditional Cautions
Conditional Cautions for punitive and foreign offender and youth Conditional Cautions for 10-17 year olds were introduced on 8 April 2013.
No data is included concerning these conditions.
Data Sources and quality
The data presented on Conditional Cautions are drawn from the CPS Case Management System. Although care is taken when processing and analysing the returns, the detail collected is subject to inaccuracies inherent in any large-scale recording system. While figures shown have been checked as far as practicable, they should be regarded as approximate and not necessarily accurate to the last whole number.
Data on releases are extracted around two weeks after the end of the previous quarter, allowing CPS staff time to update the case records. Amendments to records after this time are not published.
The most recent quarterly publication of Conditional Cautioning data was Quarter 2, 2013-2014, published on 8 November 2013 (see below). The date for the next quarterly publication of Conditional Cautioning data, for Quarter 3, 2013-2014, will be announced in January 2014.
Any enquiries may be directed to: Enquiries@cps.gsi.gov.uk.
Conditional Cautioning data
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 3 2013-14 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 2 2013-14 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 1 2013-14 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 4 2012-13 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 3 2012-13 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 2 2012-13 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 1 2012-13 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 4 2011-12 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 3 2011-12 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 2 2011-12 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 1 2011-12 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 4 2010-11 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 3 2010-11 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 2 2010-11 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 1 2010-11 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 4 2009-10 (PDF document, opens in new window)
Conditional Cautioning Data Quarter 3 2009-10 (PDF document, opens in new window)